sol-, -sol +

(Latin: base, ground, soil, bottom; the lowest part of something; sole of the foot or a shoe)

Soil orders are named by adding the suffix -sol to a root word, as shown in the table of the United States Soil Taxonomy and the soil classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO (agency of the United Nations).

Many of the applicable soilwords which are listed and defined in this unit do not use the -sol suffix; however, they are included because they are essential parts of the major listings of the U.S. Soil Taxonomy and the Food and Agriculture Organization presentations.

The soil groups are based on extensive sets of field and laboratory observations and on extensive technical criteria.

sole (s) (noun), soles (pl)
1. The underside of the foot from the toes to the heel.
2. The bottom of a shoe, a boot, or other piece of footwear; sometimes excluding the heel.
3. The underside of the head of a golf club.
4. Etymology: "bottom of the foot" is from Latin solea, "sandal, bottom of a shoe".
sole, sole, soul
sole (SOHL) (noun)
1. The underside of the foot from the toes to the heel: "I have a blister on the sole of my right foot where my new shoe was rubbing."
2. The underside of a shoe, boot, or other piece of footwear, sometimes excluding the heel: "We had to have our shoes repaired with a new inner sole for each shoe."
sole (SOHL) (adjective)
1. Only, exclusive, lone, solitary, single: "The hermit is the sole inhabitant of that cave on the hill."

"The father has sole responsibility for the child."

2. Single, alone, or having no other individual associated with a situation: "She has been the sole occupant of the house ever since her parents died."
soul (SOHL) (noun)
1. The animating and vital principle in humans, credited with the faculties of thought, action, and emotion and often conceived as an immaterial entity: "Every human being is believed to have a soul."
2. The spiritual nature of humans, regarded as immortal, separable from the body at death, and susceptible to happiness or misery in a future state: "Many religious leaders preach that the souls of their faithful followers will go to Paradise (Heaven) and the souls of the unfaithful will suffer in Hades (Hell)."
3. Essence, embodiment, quintessence: "The banker was the soul of honesty and understanding."
4. Inspiration, force, spirit, vitality: "Some musicians lack soul."
5. A soul mate or a person with whom someone has a strong affinity: "When she met my friend, she told her sister that she believed that she had finally found her soul mate."

Worship Services: Your soul is our sole mission.

As the prince was trying on the shoe to find Cinderella, someone commented that the prince was using the shoe to find his true love, while someone over hearing the statement said, the prince was actually looking for his sole mate; which, of course, would also supposedly result in the prince finding his soul mate.

Solonchak, Solonchaks
1. Soils which are defined by high soluble salt accumulation within 30 cm (1 foot) of the land surface and by the absence of distinct subsurface horizonation (layering), except possibly for accumulations of gypsum, sodium, or calcium carbonate or layers showing the effects of waterlogging.

Solonchaks are formed from saline (salt) parent material under conditions of high evaporation conditions encountered in closed basins under warm to hot climates with a well-defined dry season, as in arid, Mediterranean, or subtropical zones.

Occupying about 2.6 percent of the continental land surface on earth, they are found principally in Chad, Namibia, Australia, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

Because of their high soluble salt accumulations, Solonchaks require irrigation and drainage if they are to be used for agriculture.

They are similar to the salinized soils in the Aridisol order of the U.S. Soil Taxonomy.

Related FAO soil groups originating in arid climates and subject to limited leaching are the Solonetz, Durisols, Gypsisols, and Calcisols.

2. From the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO.
3. Etymology: from Russian sol chak, "salty area".
Solonetz, Solonets
Soils that are defined by an accumulation of sodium salts and readily displaceable sodium ions bound to soil particles in a layer below the surface horizon (uppermost layer).

This subsurface layer also contains a significant amount of accumulated clay and because of the high sodium content and dense, clay-rich subsoil, irrigated agriculture of these soils requires extensive reclamation through leaching with fresh water and the construction of engineered drainage systems.

Occupying about one percent of the continental land area on earth (northeastern Argentina, Chile, and the coastal edges of every continent), Solonetz soils occur in dry climatic zones and on parent materials either naturally enriched in sodium-bearing minerals or influenced by saline waters.

Solonetz soils are related to the sodium-accumulating Aridisols and Mollisols of the U.S. Soil Taxonomy and because they do not require a warm climate in order to form, so they can be found in association with both Solonchaks and Kastanozems, two FAO soil groups that form in warm and temperate climatic zones.

2. From the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO.
3. Etymology: from Russian sol etz, "strongly salty, salt marsh, salt lake".
solum, true soil (s) (noun); sola, solums; true soils (pl);
The upper layer of a soil profile where the formation of new soil takes place: The solum is where most plant roots and soil animals are found.

The sola, or the top layers of the soil profiles, are affected by climate and vegetation, especially plant roots.

Spodosol, Spodosols
1. Acid forest soils with a subsurface accumulation of metal-humus complexes.

Spodosols often occur under coniferous forest in cool, moist climates and are divided into five suborders: Aquods, Gelods, Cryods, Humods, and Orthods which are defined in this unit.

2. From the U.S. Soil Taxonomy soil-order classification system.
3. Etymology: from Greek spodos, "wood ashes" + -sol, Latin solum, "soil".
Andisols of very dry climates.
Vertisols of dry climates.
Gelisols that have extensive mixing by frost action or cryoturbation.
Alfisols that are in humid climates.
Andisols in humid climates.
Inceptisols existing in humid climates.
Vertisols of humid climates.
Mollisols in humid climates.
Ultisols that are located in humid climates.

Much of the information presented in this unit was compiled from the following sources:

Encyclopædia Britannica Online; "U.S. Soil Taxonomy"; December 19, 2010.

Soil and Land Resources Division, by Dr. Paul McDaniel;
University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho; College of Agricultural and Life Sciences;

The National Geographic Desk Reference; A Stonesong Press Book;
National Geographic Society; Washington, D.C.; 1999; pages 224-227.