Confusing Words Clarified: Group R; Homonyms, Homophones, Homographs, Synonyms, Polysemes, etc. +

(lists of "R" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)

If you have any problems understanding the pronunciation symbols, go to this Pronunciation Chart for clarifications.

rebound, rebound, redound
rebound (ree BOUND) (verb)
To bounce or to spring back after impact with another object: Greg said, "Earl, the ball will rebound from the wall of the indoor ball court if you hit it hard enough."
rebound (ree BOUND) (noun)
1. A sharp increase or recovery: There was a sharp rebound of prices on the stock market today.
2. The reaction to a setback or disappointment: The gossip was that Maude was on the rebound from a broken marriage.
redound (ri DOUND) (verb)
To grant or to confer to an individual's honour or merit: It will redound to Monroe's credit that he worked so hard to prevent the crisis.

Craig's decision to invest in the stock market will redound positively in terms of his stocks which have experienced a significant rebound in value.

recede, reseed
recede (ri SEED) (verb)
1. To move back or away from: The train seemed to recede, or to retreat, into the distance as Patricia and Dina were watching.
2. To return the ownership of something to the previous owner: The actual proprietary of the farm will recede to the old man who used to live there.
reseed (ri SEED) (verb)
1. To sow or to plant new seeds on a piece of land: After the construction was completed, Luis had to reseed his front lawn.
2. To plant an area through the natural distribution of seeds: The grass was allowed to mature so that it would reseed the pasture as a matter of course.

Once the flood waters recede, the farmers will have to reseed their fields.

receipt, recipe, reseat
receipt (ri SEET) (noun)
A written acknowledgment of something given to an individual or business: Dale had to sign the receipt for the delivery of the bricks to build the patio in his garden.

Open immediately upon delivery of the letter and remember that the enclosed form should be completed and returned within 30 days of the receipt.

recipe (RES uh pee") (noun)
1. A set of instructions for doing something; George saw a new recipe for chocolate cake that he wanted to bake.
2. A formula or steps to take for achieving something: Shanna seems to have found the recipe for success in her writing.
reseat (ree SEET) (verb)
To provide a different place to sit, for example at a concert: The usher will reseat Nell and Kim during the intermission because there is a post blocking their view of the pianist on stage.

While Henry and Lorna were staying at the charming Bed and Breakfast their seats at the breakfast table were designated; however, since they didn't want to sit next to the window, their host agreed to reseat them.

Shareen had such wonderful muffins, Alisa asked for the recipe and signed a receipt with her host, promising always to follow the directions exactly as specified.

recent, resent, resent, rescind
recent (REE suhnt) (adjective)
Relating to time or events happening not long ago: The recent headlines in the newspaper were very disturbing.

Kelsey is a recent university graduate who made a recent change in where she is living.

resent (ri SENT) (verb)
To cause to be dispatched again or returned again: The package that came back will need to be resent once the address is corrected.
resent (ri ZENT) (verb)
To express ill will or displeasure at something: The speaker announced, "I resent the implications of that question."

Some people resent being told that they are too old to continue working.

rescind (ri SIND) (verb)
1. To declare that something is invalid by canceling or recalling it: The publisher decided to rescind his previous decision to stop printing the book and agreed to send out 600 copies to the book store.
2. To end a law, contract, agreement, etc. by officially stating that something is no longer valid: The company decided to rescind its offer of pay raises because of the poor economic situation.

At the recent town hall meeting, Bill Williams asked the town to rescind the tax bill on his factory. The townspeople called out: No! No! We resent that! It's unfair! Unfair!!

recitation, resuscitation
recitation (res" i TAY shuhn) (noun)
1. The situation of reading out loud: The poet gave a public recitation of her most famous writings.
2. The act or process of enumerating information: When asked by the Mrs. Smart for his report, Tom gave a recitation of the facts about earthquakes.
resuscitation (ri suhs" i TAY shuhn) (noun)
The process by which someone is brought back from a state of unconsciousness: The paramedics were able to provide emergency resuscitation to the patient so he could be transferred to a hospital.

In the middle of Debora's recitation, she suddenly fainted. The paramedics provided resuscitation and she was revived and, amazingly, she was able to complete her recitation.

recluse, recluse, recuse
recluse (REK loos", ri KLOOS) (noun)
An individual who has chosen to withdraw from society by living in solitude: During her retirement, Latonya became a recluse and rarely went out in public.
recluse (REK loos", ri KLOOS) (adjective)
Characterizing a trait of a person who withdraws from social contact: Monroe's recluse behavior was accentuated by his unusual suit when he did go out in public.
recuse (ri KYOOZ) (verb)
1. In law, to object to, to protest, or to challenge a magistrate, a juror, etc.: Antonio was dissatisfied with the judicial process and sought to recuse the judge on the basis of incompetence.
2. To disqualify oneself from acting in a particular situation: The mayor sought to recuse herself from the committee because of a personal conflict of interest.

To recuse refers to the process by which a judge is disqualified as a result of an objection by either party (or disqualifies himself or herself) from hearing a lawsuit because of self-interest, bias, or prejudice.

The old recluse who lived in the barn tried to recuse the plan by the city council to tear down the barn and to build a retreat for holiday goers.

reek, reek, wreak
reek (REEK) (verb)
To produce a very strong and unpleasant odor: The stinking garbage in the kitchen was starting to reek and it was more than Ingrid could tolerate.
reek (REEK) (noun)
A strong, overpowering, and often very offensive smell: The reek of the rotten potatoes that were in the cabinet was overwhelming.
wreak (REEK) (verb)
1. To inflict vengeance or punishment upon someone: The gangs will wreak mayhem in the city if they are not brought under control.
2. To express outrage, malevolence, or resentment: The crowd gathered in the square to wreak their anger at the government because of increased taxes.
3. To cause something very harmful or damaging: The storm is expected to wreak, or wreck, havoc and extensive damage along the coast during the day.

Jerome saw the storm wreak havoc in the farmers' fields; and a short time after that, the prevailing breeze really did reek of rotting crops.

reference, reverence, reverence
reference (REF uhr uhns, REF ruhns) (noun)
1. A written or verbal statement describing the qualifications of an individual, typically prepared by someone who is well acquainted with the applicant: The letter of reference for the candidate was outstanding.
2. The act of mentioning something in speech or in writing: Roy made reference to the agreement he made with the company regarding his retirement.
3. A source of information: The index in the book provided the specific reference for which Art was looking when doing his research.
4. A published work that provides extensive information on many subjects: A thesaurus is a reference to use when looking up multiple meanings or synonyms of words.
reverence (REV uhr uhns) (noun)
Devoted respect or honor for an individual; The congregation showed a reverence towards the woman who had been their pastor for many years by endorsing her appeal for funds for hungry children in the community.
reverence (REV uhr uhns) (verb)
To treat with respect or honor: As children they were taught to reverence their parents; especially, as they grew older.

In the speech which Nell gave on Fire Fighters’ Day, she made reference to the reverence they owed to their local fire fighters and their commitments to their community.

refind, refined, refined
refind (REE fighnd) (verb)
To get or to experience for more than one time: Bobby tried to refind his youth by going on a cross-country trip with his motorcycle.
refined (ree FIN'd) (verb)
1. To have improved to be more precise or exact: Jillian refined her essay carefully before submitting it for publication.
2. To have overcome vulgarity or coarseness: Helena came from a terribly impoverished background but the opportunity to go to school really refined her ability to speak and to act in an acceptable manner.
  3. To have removed impurities: The chemical process refined the ore into pure silver.
refinded (ree FIN'd) (adjective)
Cultured, polite, and cultivated: Susanne had very refined manners which she learned from her parents.

In his essay, Carlos refined his story-telling technique to enhance the mythology surrounding the tale of the middle-aged man seeking to refind his youth while hiking through the outback of Australia.

reflects, reflex
reflects (ri FLEKS) (verb)
1. To return or to give back an image: The new mirror reflects the colors in the room in a fresh manner.
2. To think in a calm and quiet manner: Carolina always reflects on her goals and her progress towards her goals.
3. To cause or to bring about a specific trait in a person: Todd's comment about his opponent reflects well on his sense of integrity and fair play.
4. To express a thought or opinion based on extensive thinking and pondering: After an extensive period of seclusion, Alisa reflects her observations and suggestions to her friends.
reflex (REE fleks") (noun)
1. An automatic response to a stimulus: When the ball was thrown at Marian, her first reflex was to shut her eyes.
2. Something that a person does without thinking as a reaction to a situation: Disagreeing with Jim's suggestions seems to have become a reflex for his colleague at work.

Luis's automatic reflex to say "NO" certainly reflects on his attitude towards new ideas and suggestions.

refuge, refugee
refuge (REF yooj) (noun)
A place of shelter and protection in times of crisis: "The church is often seen as a refuge for troubled individuals."

"The lady sought refuge in the library when she wanted peace and quiet."

refugee (ref" yoo JEE) (noun)
An individual who leaves a situation of stress or crisis and seeks protection and shelter elsewhere: "Mildred's aunt was a refugee from the flooded areas of the countryside."

The flood refugee sought refuge in the hills above the river.

refuse, refuse
refuse (ri FYOOZ) (verb)
1. To say that a person will not accept something, such as a gift or proposal: Steve decided to refuse the job offer because the pay was insufficient.
2. To say or to show that a person is not willing to do something that another person wants him or her to do: After several attempts to get Adele to explain her bad behavior in the restaurant, she continued to refuse to answer the police officer's questions.

Sometimes the public will refuse to accept the truth about bad eating habits and that the lack of exercise can cause obesity.

3. Not allowing someone to have something: The embassy continued to refuse the reporter a visa to visit the country.
refuse (REF yoos) (noun)
Something like paper, trash, or garbage that has been thrown away: The truck will be coming soon to pick up the cans full of refuse and to take them to the dump.

We have to clean up the house and get all of that refuse into the dumpster.

The city dump is just too full; so, it may be necessary for city officials to refuse any more refuse for awhile.

Ronald said that he will absolutely refuse to let his neighbor put her refuse in his backyard.

regal, regale, regalia
regal (REE guhl) (adjective)
Describing something which is suitable for royalty; a kind of excellence: The elegant hotel looked regal in Jane's opinion.
regale (ri GAYL) (verb)
To entertain or to amuse a person or people by telling stories describing experiences, etc.: After dinner, Ed's father used to regale him with episodes of his childhood.

Trina's friend would often regale her party guests with tales of her adventures in Africa.

regalia (ri GAYL yuh, ri GAY lee uh) (noun)
Symbols of royalty; decorations or insignias of one's position or office: The queen's regalia included a long train of her robe, a crown, and a sceptre.

Because she was the mayor, Karin Marissa wore the regalia of her office, including a heavy chain around her neck.

Tammie's cousin used to regale her friends with tales about the regalia that was worn by the participants at the costume ball. Josie said they all looked very regal.

regime, regimen, regiment, regiment
regime (ray ZHEEM, ri ZHEEM) (noun)
1. A regular pattern for activities or behavior: At boarding school we followed the regime of showering with cold water.
2. An administration, an authority, or a government: The current regime at the office is very strict about working overtime.
regimen (REJ uh muhn, REJ uh men") (noun)
A regular or systematic plan or structure of activities, typically intended to improve one's health: During the winter Trisha tries to follow a careful regimen of diet and exercise.
regiment (REJ uh muhnt) (noun)
A military unit typically composed of several battalions: When Brian's uncle was in the army, the dress colors of his regiment were green and purple.
regiment (REJ uh muhnt) (verb)
1. To organize in a rigid and regulated manner: For a joke, Karin's sister tried to regiment her cats for the school parade.
2. To subject to uniformity: The school principal attempted to regiment the pupils into neat rows of ten.

The established regime ordered a new regimen for the regiment in terms of their parade duties.

register, register, registrar
register (REJ i stuhr) (noun)
1. A written book or system of public records and information: The election register, or record, was kept in a locked safe when the office was closed.
2. The vocal range of a singer’s voice or that of an instrument: The register of the piano is more than seven octaves.
register (REJ i stuhr) (verb)
1. To sign up formally for or to enroll for something: When Manfred stayed at the hotel, he had to register at the front desk before he could get a key to the room.

Christine plans to register for three lecture courses this summer.

2. To suggest or to convey an impression: Ronda Smith's name did not at first register with Karl and he was embarrassed when he realized that she was one of his former teachers.

Mike's drama teacher taught him how to register "surprise" in his face.

registrar (REJ i strahr", rej" i STRAHR) (noun)
An official of an institution (educational, medical, corporate, etc.) who is responsible for maintaining records, processing paper work for admissions, etc.: The registrar at the front desk knew the answer to Mabel's question regarding whether her application for admittance to the college had been accepted.

The office of the registrar was located in the same building as the president of the university.

The registrar at the university helped Silvia to register for the classes that she wanted to take the following year.

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