Latin Proverbs, Mottoes, Phrases, and Words: Group E
(classical-language maxims, slogans, adages, proverbs, and words of wisdom that can still capture our modern imagination)
Expressions of general truths: Latin to English maxims, proverbs, and mottoes
All entries are from Latin unless otherwise indicated.
This abbreviation is used primarily in writing to avoid making a long listing. When referring to "and other men", et alii should be used when it is preceded by the name of a male or when it means "and other people" (including both males and females).
If there is a woman's name and a writer wants to have the meaning of "and other women", then he/she may use et aliae.
If a thing (neuter gender) is written and there is a list of other non-masculine and non-feminine items (things) listed, then et alia is considered the proper term for "and other things".
One source said that "educated people" do not pronounce the abbreviateion et al.; instead, it is suggested that it is better to say, "and others" in place of et al. when speaking.
It is redundant to say or to write "and et cetera" (meaning: "and and so forth") since et means "and".
When speaking, the abbreviation, etc. is not pronounced by itself; instead, the full phrase is pronounced. One should say, et cetera (et SET uhr uh [English] or et KAY teh ruh [Latin]).
There is a quote from 1578 by a John Florio, who said, "The heaviest thing that is, is one Etcetera [sic]." It was considered the heaviest because it implied a number of unspecified things, too numerous to mention. Lawyers' etceteras [sic], in their bills of costs, were proverbial. The French had a saying, "Heaven protect us from a lawyer's etceteras [sic]." The same admonition could refer to misc. or "miscellaneous".
Beware of etc. because it can be the costliest item in an expense account. It is also considered to be a sign used in an effort to make others believe that someone knows more than he/she does in reality.
Used by more than a few
To make people think
They know more than they do.
Motto of the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.
This phrase is used to indicate others of the same class of persons or things; such as, "and all that sort of thing" and is considered by one source as "a pretentious substitute for et cetera, etc.".
This phrase is used to suggest that whatever has been spoken about one person or topic under discussion holds true for related matters as well. The phrase ab uno disce omnes has similarities: "from one example, learn about all" or "from one, learn all".
Was it really, "Et tu Brute!"?
According to the Roman historian, Suetonius (Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, c. 69-c. 140A.D.): "When they saw that Caesar had settled in his place, the conspirators stood around him as if to do him honor, and immediately Tullius Cimber, who had taken the lead, stepped closer as if to make some request, When Caesar seemed to take offense, and with a gesture put him off until another time, Cimber caught hold of his toga at both shoulders. At this Caesar cried out, This is violence!', whereupon one of the two Cascas attacked him frontally, wounding him a little beneath the throat. And so he was stabbed with three and twenty wounds, having uttered no word save one groan upon the first thrust; some have written, however, that as Marcus Brutus came running upon him, he cried in Greek, kai su, teknon, And thou, my son?'"
In an earlier account by Plutarch (Greek, Ploutarchos, c. A.D. 46-A.D. c. 120; Greek historian, biographer and philosopher), Caesar said nothing, but only pulled his toga over his head.
Included in Shakespeare's play, Julius Caesar, in which Caesar's last words were expressed by his shock as Brutus (supposedly Caesar's trusted ally) stabbed him after the other assasins had already mortally wounded him.
This quotation reflects Shakespeare's version of the death of Caesar. Now, Et tu Brute! has become the classic recognition of betrayal by a trusted friend.