(Latin: prefix; to, toward, a direction toward, addition to, near, at; and changes to: ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, aq-, ar-, as-, at- when ad- is combined with certain words that begin with the letters c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, and t)

The Latin element ad carries the idea of "in the direction of" and combines with many Latin words and roots to make common English words.

ad saturandum, ad sat. (Latin)
To saturation.
Ad summum. (Latin)
At the highest; at the utmost.

Motto of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA.

ad unguem (Latin)

Literally, "to a fingernail": Ad unguem is used to convey the thought of accomplishing something well or precisely.

In ancient times, a sculptor would test the smoothness of a finished surface by running a fingernail over it.

ad unum

Literally, "all to one", where the meaning is "unanimously".

ad usum externum, ad us. exter.
For external use.
ad usum; ad us.
According to usage.
Ad utrumque paratus.
Ready for either [eventuality].

A mature person is ready to cope with any eventuality, including the final one; in other words: "Prepared for the worst." Compare with semper paratus.

ad valorem; ad val., ad v., a/v; ad valorem tax (Latin terms)
Translation: "According to value or per unit of value; that is, divided by the price."

Many states and federal governments tax energy extraction in this manner.

It also refers to taxes: "In proportion to invoiced value of goods." A term used when imposing customs and stamp duty, the duty increasing according to the value of the transaction of goods involved. Pronounced in English as: ad vuh LOH ruhm.

ad verbum
To the word.

This is the Latin equivalent of verbatim. There are several other Latin expressions for "word-for-word"; including: e verbo, de verbo, and pro verbo. These probably referred to the problems of making accurate copies before printing was invented.

Ad vindictam tardus, ad beneficientiam velox. (Latin motto)
Translation: "Punish slowly, do good quickly."

Motto of Henry I (918-936) who forced the dukes of Bavaria and Swabia to recognize his authority. He protected Saxony against the Slavs by building several fortresses and by creating a powerful cavalry which he used to defeat the invading Magyars on the Unstrut River in 933.

King Henry succeeded in annexing the key Carolingian realm of Lorraine to the east Franconian realm. He is regarded as the actual founder of the German Empire.

Ad virtutem per sapientiam.
Translation: "To virtue through wisdom."

Motto of Castle Jr. College, Windham, New Hampshire, USA.

ad vitam
To or for life.

A legal term found in some wills, meaning, "for use only during a person's life."

ad, add
ad (AD) (noun)
Short for advertisement: Jim's employer placed an ad in the paper for additional workers.
add (AD) (verb)
1. To find the sum of numbers or quantities: Shane and Clara tried to add the total number of people who were at the party.
2. To go on to say or to write more: Helen said goodbye and wanted to add that she had a pleasant visit with Darren and Yvonne.
3. To join one thing to another so as to increase the number, quantity, or the importance of something: Lynn decided to add a new wing to her house.

Francisco and Thelma placed an ad in the paper because they wanted to add a pool to their yard; however, after they decided to add all of the expenses, they found it much more feasible to invest in a wading pool instead.

adage (s) (noun), adages (pl)
1. A traditional saying expressing a common experience or observation; a proverb: The village elder used many adages to illustrate his stories about the people who have lived in the area.
2. A saying that sets forth a general truth and which has gained credit through long use: Benjamin Franklin, an historical figure in United States History, often used a simple adage to illustrate his talks; for example, "Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man (person) healthy, wealthy, and wise."
3. Etymology: formed Latin adagium, "proverb, saying" from ad, "to" + agi, "to say, to speak".
A saying that has had long-term usage.
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ad-appears in this form before a vowel and before the consonants d, h, j, m, and v. It is simplified to a- before sc, sp and st.

Before c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, and t; ad- is changed to ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, aq-, ar-, as-, and at-.

In other words, the d of ad usually changes into the same letter as the first letter of the following root or word when it is a consonant: ad-fix becomes affix, and ad-sign becomes assign; therefore, making a double consonant.

Another example includes: attract as with ad-tract (drawn towards); so it has a double t. On the other hand when ad- precedes a vowel, as with adapt, it is simply ad-apt, with one d. For the same reason, there is only one d in adore and adumbrate, because ad- has combined with orare and umbra each of which starts with a vowel.

So, remember: since these Latin words begin with vowels and not consonants, the d of ad does not double as shown in the previous examples.