ad-

(From Latin: "to, toward, a direction toward, an addition to, near, at"; and changes to: "ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, aq-, ar-, as-, at-" and ad- is also combined with certain words that begin with the letters c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, and t.)

The Latin element ad carries the idea of "in the direction of" and combines with many Latin words and roots to make common English words.

advection (s) (noun), advections (pl)
1. The transportation of a mass of matter and its conserved properties, like energy, by motion: Examples of advection can be seen in the movement of pollutants or silt in a stream or river which flows downstream.
2. The conveyance of an atmospheric property caused by the horizontal movement of air: The transfer of heat, humidity or moisture, or salinity, which are some properties carried through the motion of the air, is known as advection.
3. The horizontal movement of water, as in an ocean current: Advection is important for the precipitation of rain, snow, etc. from clouds, or for the formation of shaping of such orographic clouds.
advection fog (s) (noun), advection fogs (pl)
A type of thick mist formed when warm, moist air moves horizontally over a cooler surface: Advection fog is found especially along a coastline where the temperature of land and the temperature of water significantly differ.

advectional inversion (s) (noun), advectional inversions (pl)
A departure from the usual decrease of temperature with increasing altitude: Advectional inversion is a temperature reversal caused by cold air moving across a previously warmed up surface, causing the warm air to rise up above the cooler air below.
advective (adjective); more advective, most advective
A reference to the transfer of heat, cold, or other atmospheric properties by the horizontal motion of a body of air or water: In Jack's science class at school, he was fascinated by the advective terms describing mass water movement, especially regarding the ocean currents.
adventitia (s) (noun) (no countable)
A membrane that covers an organ but is not part of that organ: Adventitia is primarily made up of connective tissue.

The layer known as adventitia is a pliable sheet of tissue that overlays, lines, or connects the organs or cells of animals or plants.

adventitial (adjective) (not comparable)
Referring to the outer coating of a connective tissue of an organ: In Daisy's science class she had to describe the adventitial covering of a blood vessel to her fellow students.
adventitious (adjective); more adventitious, most adventitious
1. Referring to an addition from without; extrinsically added: The adventitious population in the big city is due to people coming from many different countries from around the world, while the minority of the population was born there.
2. Regarding something that appears sporadically, or out of the normal place: Jane noticed in her garden that some of the flowers she had planted in the fall were evidently quite adventitious and were suddenly appearing in a completely different spot!
3. Not natural or hereditary; pertaining to a growth in an unexpected place on a plant: Examples of such adventitious developments on organisms are roots that form on stems, an increase of hair where it usually is not found, or the development of a plant in a foreign habitat.

Adventitious roots, shoots, buds, etc. are produced in unusual parts of the plant.

adventitious bud (s) (noun), adventitious buds (pl)
A bud that occurs in an unusual position: An adventitious bud, such leaves or blooms, or even roots, are ones that have developed in quite abnormal places on a plant.
adventure (s) (noun), adventures (pl)
1. That which happens to a person, without design or chance: The little adventure Adam had of playing in the lottery for the first time brought him quite a fortune!
2. A chance occurrence, an event or issue, an accident: Bruce and Sally had an adventure the other day when they drove through the woods, had a flat tire, and met up with a bear!
3. A hazardous or perilous enterprise or performance: Some people seek adventure by racing yachts on wild and dangerous oceans!
4. Any novel or unexpected event in which one shares: When trying to find their way around in the foreign city, Jeffrey and Susan had an adventure of getting lost and then accidentally meeting someone from their home town!
5. The participation in risky, novel, and exciting events; enterprise: The little children were looking forward to going into the garden the first time without their parents and to the adventures awaiting them!
adverb (s) (noun), adverbs (pl)
A term used to "modify" and describe, or to make the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb more specific: Most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to adjectives, however some adjectives that end in ic add ally, like "basic", "basically". Others, such as "well", "far", "low", "hard", "early", and "fast" have the same form as adjectives.

In summary: adverbs tell manner (how), time (when), place (where), degree (how much), and sometimes cause (why).

Adverbs of manner: politely, carefully, not, equally, tenderly.

Adverbs of time: now, then soon, later, early, often.

Adverbs of place: here, there, near, forward, far.

Adverbs of degree: very, so, much, too, extremely, rather.

Adverbs of cause: why, therefore, hence.

adversary (s) (noun), adversaries (pl)
1. A person who, or that which, takes up a position of antagonism, or acts in a hostile manner; an opponent, antagonist; an enemy, a foe: The governor's political adversaries tried to keep him from winning a second term in office.
2. Etymology: from Anglo-French adverser, from Old French adversier, from Latin adversarius, "opponent, rival"; literally, "turned toward one", from adversus, "turned against".
A foe or a person who opposes another person.
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An opponent, an enemy, or a foe.
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adverse (ad VURS, AD vurs") (adjective); more adverse, most adverse
1. Relating to someone or something that is opposed to or hostile toward another person or thing; unfavorable and negative: Adverse winds prevented the plane from arriving on time.

Adverse winds usually reduce the speed of sailing vessels.

When striving to achieve a worthy objective, everyone should not be discouraged by adverse criticism.

High interest rates are adverse to increasing the sales of houses.
2. Etymology: from Old French avers (Modern French adverse); from Latin adversus, "turned against"; therefore, "hostile"; past participle of advertere, from ad-, "to" + vertere, "to turn".

Conflicting with and contrary to one's interests; unfortunate.
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adverse hydro (adjective), more adverse hydro, most adverse hydro
A description of water situations that are unfavorable to the generation of water power: Adverse hydro conditions, such as low rainfall or snowfall, and the lack of runoff from mountains or hills, limits the production of hydroelectric power.
advertise (verb), advertises; advertised; advertising
1. To publicize the qualities of a product, service, business, or event in order to encourage people to buy or to use it: The new cinema in town was advertising the latest movies during the past week so that everybody would come and watch!
2. To make something known publicly: There was a job opening in the shop downtown and it was advertised in Monday's newspaper.
advice (s) (noun), advices (pl)
1. An opinion, suggestion, or recommendation offered as a guide to action, conduct, etc.: William and Sharon decided to act on their father's advice to get married.
2. An opinion about what could or should be done about a situation or problem; to give counsel: Since it was a legal matter, Mike was urged to get a lawyer’s advice before he got involved in the business deal.
4. Formal or official information about something; intelligence, news report: Advice from abroad indicated that war was about to begin.
5. Etymology: from Latin ad-, "to" + visum, past participle of videre, "to see".

Advice is what you get from your parents when you are growing up, and from your children when you are growing old.

—Evan Esar

It’s a pleasure to give advice, humiliating to need it, normal to ignore it.

—E.C. McKenzie