Scientific Fields or Categories of Science Specialties

(lists of careers in science with short descriptions)

The scientific job in which one applies the properties, composition, and structures of matter, the changes in structure and composition of matter, and accompanyinng energy changes.
civil engineering (s) (noun) (no plural form)
A livelihood in science that includes planning, design, construction, and the maintenance of fixed structures and ground facilities for industry, for transportation, for use and control of water, for human occupancy, and for harbor facilities: Susanne now has a degree in civil engineering so she can help in the designing and the building of better roads, highways, and bridges for the infrastructure of her country.
That vocation in science concerned with meteorology which is concerned with the mean physical state of the atmospher together with its statistical variations in both space and time as reflected in weather behavior over a period of many years.
communications (adjective), more communications, most communications
1. A reference to the discipline that studies the principles of transmitting information and the methods by which it is delivered: In Tom's communications class, students studied the science and technology of providing information; especially, by electronic means; such as, print, computer, radio, television, etc.
2. Related to the academic study of the various forms or means of transmitting data and information to others; such as, with print or broadcasting or any of the various professions involved with the transmission of information; including, advertising, broadcasting, or journalism: The communications professor at the university helped his students to improve their abilities to share data with various agencies.
3. Pertaining to the employment in science and technology of information that is collected from an originating source, then transformed into electric currents or fields, transmitted over electrical networks or space to another point, and reconverted into a form suitable for interpretation by human receivers: In the present day, communications sources in electronics is the primary method for the transferring important data that is to be interpreted by human viewers and readers.

Significant financial investments in the communications industry are being made around the world.

computer science, computer-science (s) (noun); computer sciences, computer-sciences (pl)
A branch of science that promotes knowledge which is concerned with information processes, the structures and procedures that represent these processes, and their implementation in the various information-processing systems of computers.
control systems
The work specialty in the science of those systems in which one or more outputs are forced to change in a desired manner as time progresses.
cryoelectronics, cryotronics (plural forms used as singular entries)
A field of engineering that studies the design and functioning of electronics systems, circuits, and devices at temperatures approaching absolute zero (0 Kelvin or -270 degrees Celsius); especially, as applied to the phenomenon of superconductivity.
The profession in the science of producing and maintaining very low temperatures, of the phenomena at those temperatures, and of technical operations performed at very low temperatures.
A line of work in a branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals, their internal arrangements, and their properties: "Crystallography is the study of forms, structures, and the properties of crystals."
An occupation in the branch of biological science that deals with the structure, behavior, growth, and reproduction of cells and the function and chemistry of cells and cell components.
design engineering
The vocation in a branch of engineering concerned with the design of a product or facility according to generally accepted uniform standards and procedures; such as, the specification of a linear dimension, or a manufacturing practice; for example, the consistent use of a particular size of screw to fasten covers.
Employment in the science of the interrelationships between organisms and their enviroments.
1. The science and technology of electromechanical devices, systems, or processes.
2. The technology of mechanical devices, systems, or processes which are electrostatically or electromagnetically actuated or controlled.
3. The branch of electrical engineering concerned with machines producing or operated by electric currents.
1. The study and application of the conduction of electric charges in various media, including vacuums, gaseous media, and semiconductors.
2. The science of all systems involving the use of electrical instruments used for communication information processing, and control.
3. That field of science and engineering which deals with electron systems, circuits, and devices that control the flow of electrons.
4.The name given to that branch of electrical engineering that deals with tools the operations of which depend on the movement of electrons in space as opposed to the movement of electrons in liquids or solid conductors; for example, radio tubes, photoelectric cells, etc.

The term electronics refers to a large number of different phenomena and devices in which useful electrical effects are achieved through control of the motion of electrons.

The fact that the time in which we live is sometimes referred to as "the electronic age" indicates what widespread consequences are involved.

A representative partial list of electronic devices today includes such diverse applications as rectifiers, amplifiers, integrated circuits, memories, microwave sources and receivers, light-emitting devices, light-detecting devices, and solar cells to convert solar energy into electricity.

—Quoted from "Electronics" by Richard H. Bube;
Professor of Materials Science & Electrical Engineering; Standford University;
presented in the Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology;
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers;
San Diego, California; 1992; page 730.
electronics engineer
An engineer whose training includes a degree in electronic engineering from an accredited college or university, a degree in electrical engineering with a major in electronics, or comparable knowledge and experience as required for working with electronic circuits and tools.

The main science-word unit.

Related articles about science: "Science Race"; STEM, Part 1; STEM, Part 2.