foren-, fore-

(Latin: forensis of a forum, place of assembly; public, public speaking; foras, foranus, outside, residing outside, out of doors)

forensic economics (pl) (noun) (a plural form used as either a singular or a plural)
The scientific subject field applying economic theories and methods to affairs within legal frameworks: Forensic economics can cover such areas as the lost value of a business, decreased business profits, the unknown value of a household service, replacement labor costs; and future medical-care costs.
forensic engineering (s) (noun), forensic engineerings (pl)
1. A science and practice that deals with applications of engineering and construction facts and scientific methods of a variety of construction and legal problems: Forensic engineering can involve the investigation of intellectual property assertions, particularly those of patents.
2. The investigation of materials, products, structures or components that break down or do not operate or function as intended: The purpose of forensic engineering is to locate the cause or causes of failure with the objective of improving the performances of the various parts of the equipment.
forensic entomology
The examination of insects in, on, and around human remains to assist in determining the time or location of death.

Medicolegal forensic entomology includes arthropod involvement (mostly necrophagous or corpse-eating) involving events such as murder, suicide and rape, but also includes physical abuse and contraband trafficking.

In murder investigations, it is concerned with where and when insects lay eggs; and in what order they appear in dead bodies. This can be helpful in determining the time or post mortem interval and location of the death being investigated.

forensic evidence
Examination and analysis of scientific evidence from a crime scene.
forensic genetics
The branch of genetics that deals with the application of genetic knowledge to legal problems and legal proceedings.

Forensic genetics is also a branch of forensic medicine which more broadly investigates the application of medical knowledge that were applicable to legal matters.

This is not a new field. Long before the era of DNA fingerprinting investigators used blood grouping, HLA typing, and other tests of genetic markers in blood to try to determine who did it (and, more often, who did not do it).

forensic medicine (s) (noun), forensic medicines (pl)
The branch of medical science that applies medical knowledge for legal purposes: Forensic medicine interprets or establishes medical facts in civil or criminal law cases; especially, in court proceedings.
forensic meteorology
The process of reconstructing weather events for a certain location.

This is done by acquiring local weather reports, radar and satellite images, and eyewitness accounts.

Forensic meteorology is most often used in court cases for use by insurance companies or for a murder investigation.

forensic pathology
A branch of medicine concerned with determining the cause of deaths usually for civil or criminal law cases.

The forensic pathologist performs autopsies to determine the cause of a death; such as, examining a bullet wound to the head, exsanguination, strangulation, etc. and the manner of a death (including homicide, accident, natural, or suicide).

Forensic pathologists also work closely with the coroner (England and Wales) or medical examiner (United States). The examination of dead bodies (autopsy or post mortem) is a subset of anatomical pathology.

Forensic pathologists are often also known as forensic medical examiners or police surgeons.

forensic psychiatry
1. The use of psychiatric knowledge and techniques in questions of law to determine legal insanity.
2. Psychiatry in its legal aspects including criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.
forensic science (s) (noun), forensic sciences (pl)
A branch of medicine concerned with determining the cause of deaths, the examination of injuries due to crime and negligence, and the examination of tissue samples relevant to criminal activities.
forensic testimony
Any testimony of expert scientific, engineering, economic or of any other specialized nature used to assist the court and the lawyers in a lawsuit or prosecution.
forensic toxicology
The use of toxicology to aid a medicolegal investigation of death and poisoning.

Many toxic substances do not produce characteristic lesions, so if a toxic reaction is suspected, visual investigation may not provide an adequate deduction.

A forensic toxicologist must consider the context of an investigation, in particular any physical symptoms recorded, and any evidence collected at a crime scene that may narrow the search; such as, pill bottles, powders, trace residue, and any available chemicals.

Provided with this information and samples with which to work, the forensic toxicologist must determine which toxic substances are present, in what concentrations, and the probable effect of those chemicals on the human subject being investigated.

1. The application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system.

This may be in relation to a crime or to a civil action.

2. Of or belonging to a court of law; judcial.

In 1659, it was a shortened form of an earlier forensical.

3. The art or study of formal debate; argumentation; rhetorical.
1. A dense growth of trees, plants, and underbrush covering a large area.
2. Something that resembles a large, dense growth of trees, as in density, quantity, or profusion: "New York is a forest of skyscrapers."
3. A defined area of land formerly set aside in England as a royal hunting ground.
4. Usually considered a learned borrowing from Late and Medieval Latin forestem silvam, the "outside woods".

The sense is generally taken to refer to "the woods lying outside the walls of a park, those that are not fenced in", from Latin foris, "outside"; literally, "out of doors", from a lost noun fora, related to foris "door", and altered from fura.

—Excerpts from The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology,
Robert K. Barnhart, Editor; The H.W. Wilson Company, 1988.

Forest originally meant "the forest depending on the king's court of justice". Middle Latin forestis derives from Latin forum, "pubic place", used in its Middle Latin sense "court of justice".

A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language,
by Ernest Klein, Elsevier Publishing Company, New York, 1966.
The planting of trees or forests.