cryo-, cry-, kryo-, kry-

(Greek: cold, very cold, freezing; used to describe the effects of low temperatures or activities carried on at a very low temperature)

1. Cessation of contractions of the myocardium produced by cooling the heart during cardiac surgery.
2. Paralysis of the heart as a result of hypothermia or cold.
Someone who applies the instrument that causes the destruction of tissue by freezing it (similar to "burning" it).
cryocautery, cold cautery
1. Any substance, such as liquid air or carbon dioxide snow, or a low temperature instrument, the application of which causes destruction of tissue by burn-freezing.
2. The extreme use of cold in destroying tissue as if by "burning" it.
A freeze-drying procedure that involves conduction heat transfer to the frozen solid secured on a metallic surface.
cryochore (s) (noun), cryiochores (pl)
Those regions of the earth’s surface perpetually covered by snow.
cryocondensation, cryocondense
The process of a phase change from a gas to a liquid or solid phase when the gas contacts a surface having a temperature lower than the dew point of the gas.
cryoconite, kryokonite
1. A dark, finely textured dust powder carried by wind and deposited on a snow or ice surface.
2. Depressions containing cryoconite that absorbs solar radiation, thus causing the melting of the neighboring glacier ice.
3. Organisms and wind-blown detritus that induce surface melt pits in glaciers.
Damage to tissues, sperm, ova, or other substances during cryopreservation.

Cryopreservation is the maintaining of viability of excised tissue, organs, embryos, sperm, ova, or other substances; such as, for transplantation, by storing them at very low temperatures, usually with immersion in liquid nitrogen at -196.5°C.

cryoelectron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy (s) (noun); cryoelectron microscopies, cryo-electron microscopies (pl)
An electron microscopic technique that involves freezing the biological sample in order to view the sample with the least possible distortion and the fewest possible artifacts. Abbreviated as cryo-EM.

In cryoelectron microscopy, the freezing of the sample is done in ethane slush to produce vitreous, or non-crystalline, ice. The frozen sample grid is then kept at liquid nitrogen temperature in the electron microscope and digital micrographs are collected with a camera.

The advantages of cryo-EM over traditional EM techniques include the preservation of the sample in a near-native hydrated state without the distortions from stains or fixatives needed for traditional EM. With image processing and averaging of multiple images, cyroelectron microscopy provides high resolution information (below 10 angstroms).

An angstrom is a metric unit of length equal to one ten billionth of a meter (or 0.0001 micron); used to specify wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.

cryoelectronics, cryotronics (plural forms used as singular entries)
A field of engineering that studies the design and functioning of electronics systems, circuits, and devices at temperatures approaching absolute zero (0 Kelvin or -270 degrees Celsius); especially, as applied to the phenomenon of superconductivity.
Removal of cataracts by the adhesion of a freezing probe to the lens; now rarely done.

It is accomplished with an instrument (cryoprobe) whose extremely cold tip forms an adhesion (iceball) with the lens, thus permitting removal of the lens.

An instrument (cryoprobe), artificially cooled, for extraction of the lens by freezing contact.
An abnormal type of fibrinogen (protein present in blood plasma; converts to fibrin when blood clots) very rarely found in human plasma; it is precipitated upon cooling, but redissolves when warmed to room temperature.
cryofixation (s) (noun), cryofixations (pl)
Holding, suturing, or fastening in a position with a process for microscopy that is carried out at low temperatures during surgery to improve the quality of holding body parts together: Cryofixation is often done at very low temperatures and fast coolings are used to prevent formation of ice crystals.

Cooling rates of 10,000 degrees per minute may be used in cryofixations and liquid nitrogen or even liquid helium temperatures are utilized and it is not necessary to include any chemical treatments.

A freezing substance used to produce very low temperatures.

You may take a self-scoring quiz over some of the words in this section by clicking on this cryo-, kryo- quiz to check your word knowledge or learn more about the words in this unit.

Cross references of word families that are related directly or indirectly to "winter, freezing, frost, and/or cold": algid- (cold, chilly); cheimo-, chimo- (winter, cold); crymo-, krymo- (cold, chill, frost); frigo-, frig- (cold, frost); gel-, gelati- (freeze, frost, congeal); hiber- (winter, wintry); pago- (cold, freezing); psychro- (cold); rhigo- (cold, frost; shiver).