-crat, -cracy, -cratic, -cratism, -cratically, -cracies

(Greek: a suffix; to govern, to rule; government, strength, power, might, authority)

Good laws derive from evil habits.


Two characteristics of government are that it cannot do anything quickly, and that it never knows when to quit.

—Jeremy Thorpe
autocrat (s) (noun), autocrats (pl)
1. A monarch of uncontrolled or unrestricted power; one who rules with undisputed jurisdiction: The new owner of the company Jake worked for was an autocrat who demanded absolute obedience by his employees.
2. A person who is invested with or assumes unlimited authority with any relationship: Adam's daughter, Susan, called him an unreasonable autocrat.

The state! It is I!

—Attributed to Louis XIV of France
A monarch who rules without any restrictions.
© ALL rights are reserved.

Someone who insists on the obedience of others to his or her demands.
© ALL rights are reserved.

Go to this Word A Day Revisited Index
so you can see more of Mickey Bach's cartoons.

autocratic (adjective), more autocratic, most autocratic
Of the nature of, or pertaining to someone who has absolute authority; referring to a despotic ruler: A few autocratic rulers in the past were Adolf Hitler, Napoleon Bonaparte, and Queen Elizabeth I. Today Vladimir Putin is considered to be an autocratic leader.
autocratism (s) (noun), autocratisms (pl)
The way a regime is ruled by a despot with absolute authority, despotism: Autocratism is the manner in which a government is ruled by only one person who has unlimited power.
barbarocracy (s) (noun), barbarocracies (pl)
A government or rule by barbarians: Barbarocracy can be exemplified by that of Italy in the past or by the German emperors.
bureaucracy (s) (noun), bureaucracies (pl)
1. Administration of a government chiefly through departments which are staffed with non-elected officials: The entrenched bureaucracies in the government have caused many delays in processing important payments to those who are entitled to tax refunds.
2. The management or administration which is marked by hierarchical authority among numerous offices and by fixed procedures: Some government offices are accused of being a rigid bureaucracy and thus impeding or slowing down actions because of their overly strict adherence to rules or regulations.

To satisfy the government bureaucracy, James and Jane had to fill out several different forms and then they had to wait for some weeks before they obtained the payment that they had coming to them.

3. An administrative system in which the need or inclination to follow rigid or complex procedures interferes with efficient and effective actions: Innovative or new ideas too often get bogged down in red tape in a bureaucracy.

Too often bureaucracies insist on going through rigid routines, resulting in delays in making decisions or in carrying out requests. This is also known as "red tape" which comes from the former use of red or pink tape to tie up or to seal official documents for security reasons.

Too often a bureaucracy is where more is said than is actually done.

Red tape is what binds bureaucracy together and it represents projects that are often never completed until the weight of the paper work is equal to the weight of all the workers who are involved.

—Compiled from an entry in
Esar's Comic Dictionary by Evan Esar; Doubleday & Company, Inc.;
Garden City, New York; 1983; page 500.
An agency in which complex procedures interfere with practical applications or actions.
© ALL rights are reserved.

Go to this Word A Day Revisited Index
so you can see more of Mickey Bach's cartoons.

bureaucratic (adjective), more bureaucratic, most bureaucratic
Referring to the actions of governments by a mixture of officials who often collectively hinder the efficiency of results: Bureaucratic procedures most often involve complicated rules and cause very long and frustrating delays in getting things accomplished.

Bureaucratic rule can be exemplified by “desks” or government officials who "govern the desks".

The actual work of government is too unglamorous for the people who govern us to do. Important elected officeholders and high appointed officials create bureaucratic departments to perform the humdrum tasks of national supervision.

Government proposes, bureaucracy disposes; and the bureaucracy must dispose of government proposals by dumping them on us.

From a Parliment of Whores by P.J. O’Rourke;
The Atlantic Monthly Press; New York; 1991; page 85.
bureaucratism (s) (noun), bureaucratisms (pl)
A system of administration including a group of non-elective government officials and a directorial policy-making group: Bureaucratism is the administrative system governing any large institution, whether publicly owned or privately owned.

A public administration in many countries are examples of bureaucratisms, but so is the centralized hierarchical structure of a business firm.

In the United States military establishment, bureaucratisms involve the civil service with government workers and officials who are usually hired on the basis of competitive examinations.

capelocracy (s) (noun), capelocracies (pl)
The shopkeeping interest or class: Capelocracies are businesses which are controlled or governed by shopkeepers.
cenocracy (s) (noun), cenocracies (pl)
A new government that makes laws, rules, regulations, collects taxes, and prints money: There often are newly organized legislatures or cenocracies which are created by citizens in many countries.
cenodemocracy (s) (noun), cenodemocracies (pl)
1. A new government for the people: In the story, Meg read that the people on the island wanted to have a cenodemocracy to replace the present one they did not like anymore.
2. Etymology: from Greek kainos = ceno, "new, recent" + Greek demokratia, "popular government" from demos, "common people".
cheirocracy, chirocracy (s) (noun); cheirocracies; chirocracies (pl)
A government or country that is ruled with "strong hands" or by physical force: There are some people who maintain that certain countries have always been cheirocracies or chirocracies.

Some people maintain that China has always been a chirocracy, and if this is true, there are also many other countries that fit this description.

Examples of additional nations that practice cheirocracy include North Korea, some Arabic countries, and even former President Trump of the U.S.A. who restricted immigrants coming in from Mexico with military forces.

chromatocracy (s) (noun), chromatocracies (pl)
A government of a nation by a single race: Chromatocracy can be explained as being a ruling class of a particular skin color, for example of white people, black people, or oriental people.
chrysocracy (s) (noun), chrysocracies (pl)
Rule of the wealthy; a plutocracy: A chrysocracy is considered a governing power or ruling of a country by those who have the gold to back up their wealth and strong political influences.
Whoever has the gold makes the rules.
cosmocracy (s) (noun), cosmocracies (pl)
Government control, or rule, of the whole world: In the fantasy book Lois was reading, everybody agreed on having a cosmocracy, or global government, and a world with peace and without war.
cosmocrat (s) (noun), cosmocrats (pl)
A ruler of the world, or a prince of the Earth: Arthur thought that only a god could be a cosmocrat and govern the world, but never a human being.

Cross references of word families related directly, or indirectly, to: "master, lead, leading, ruler, ruling, govern": -agogic; agon-; arch-; dom-; gov-; magist-; poten-; regi-; tyran-.