grapho-, graph-, -graph, -graphy, -grapher, -graphia
(Greek: to scratch; to write, to record, to draw, to describe; that which is written or described)
As indicated at the bottom of this page, there is a significantly large number of graphic word-entry groups in this unit. Such an extensive listing is provided to show how important the grapho- element is to the English language.
2. Angiography of the heart and great vessels; contrast material may be injected into a blood vessel or one of the cardiac chambers.
Images obtained can be analyzed to determine parameters of ventricular function, including ventricular ejection fractions, cardiac output, ejection rates, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, and end-systolic volume, as well as to test the effects of exercise.
It is especially useful in the study of coronary arteries and the chambers of the heart.
The diagnostic value of conventional determination of cerebral circulation time from serial angiograms is questioned and compared with the results of angiocinematographic investigation.
Sometimes angiodynography is referred to as "color flow Doppler" because the arteries will appear as red on the screen and the veins will be blue. Useful in the determination of vascular obstruction.
2. A special kind of sphygmograph or instrument for recording on paper the movements of the pulse.
2. Angiography is also the radiographic visualization of blood vessels following introduction of contrast material; used as a diagnostic aid in such conditions as stroke syndrome and myocardial infarction.
An angiogram is a roentgenographic (X-ray) examination of blood vessels after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium which produces an angiogram.
Other older terms for the movie projector are animatograph, biograph, bioscope, electrograph, electroscope, kinematograph, kinetoscope, veriscope, vitagraph, and vitascope