grapho-, graph-, -graph, -graphy, -grapher, -graphia

(Greek: to scratch; to write, to record, to draw, to describe; that which is written or described)

As indicated at the bottom of this page, there is a significantly large number of graphic word-entry groups in this unit. Such an extensive listing is provided to show how important the grapho- element is to the English language.

electromyography, EMG
1. The recording of electrical activity generated in muscles for diagnostic purposes; both surface and needle recording electrodes can be used, although characteristically the latter is employed, so that the procedure is also called needle electrode examination.
2. An umbrella term for the entire electrodiagnostic study performed in the EMG laboratory, including not only the needle electrode examination, but also the nerve conduction studies.
3. A diagnostic procedure in which metal probes are attached to or inserted into the skin in order to detect the electrical activity of contracting muscles.

Such activities are altered in recognizable ways by diseases that affect either muscles or nerves which supply the muscles.

4. The preparation, study of, and interpretation of electromyograms.
5. The recording of electrical activities associated with muscular functions, often used in the clinical diagnosis of muscular disorders.

A single electrical spike potential is generated when a muscle fiber contracts while the magnitude of the spike potentials is roughly proportional to the amount of muscular tension.

Surface detecting electrodes (for many muscle fibers) or needle electrodes (for one or a few fibers) provide a signal that is amplified and displayed on a cathode-ray tube.

A procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by electric stimulation of nerves.

Needle electrodes are inserted into any skeletal muscle being studied, electric current is applied to the electrodes, and neuromuscular functions are observed and recorded by means of instruments; such as, a cathode-ray oscilloscope and an appropriate recording device.

The procedure is helpful in the study of neuromuscular conduction, the extent of nerve lesions, and reflex responses.

electron beam computed tomography (s) (noun), EBCT; electron beam computed tomographies (pl)
Ultrafast computed tomography done with a scanner in which the patient is surrounded by a large circular anode that emits X-rays as the electron beam is guided around it.
electron diffractograph (s) (noun), electron diffractographs (pl)
1. A device which produces an electron-diffraction pattern by focusing an electron beam onto a crystal specimen, allowing the user to examine the crystal structure of the sample.
2. An instrument related to the electron microscope, in which a beam of electrons strikes the sample, showing crystal pattern and other physical attributes on the resulting diffraction pattern: An electron diffractograph is used for chemical analysis, atomic structure determination, etc.
electron metallography
The study of the microscopic structure of metals using an electron microscope.
electron micrograph
1. A reproduction of an image formed by the action on an electron beam on a photographic emulsion.
2. A photograph or other reproduction of an image formed by the action of an electron beam by an electron microscope.
electron micrography
The photographic recording of images produced by the electrons from an electron microscope.

The electron beam carries the images through an array of lenses and an enlarged electron image is used to stimulate a fluorescent screen that is photographed by a camera system.

electron microradiography
The photographic recording and later enlarging of very thin specimens, using an electron beam to form the image.
electron-beam lithography, electron beam lithography, e-beam lithography
1. Lithography in which radiation-sensitive film is exposed to an electron beam.
2. The practice of scanning a beam of electrons in a patterned fashion across a surface covered with a film called the resist, exposing the resist, and of selectively removing either exposed or non-exposed regions of the resist called, "developing".
3. Lithography in which the radiation-sensitive film or resist is placed in the vacuum chamber of a scanning-beam electron microscope and exposed by an electron beam under digital computer control.

After exposure, the film is removed from the vacuum chamber for conventional development and other production processes.

1. Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.
2. The recording and study of the electrical properties of skeletal muscles by means of surface or needle electrodes.

Useful in kinesiology and the study of neuromuscular function, extent of nerve lesion, and reflex response.

3. An electrodiagnostic test that assists in detecting and locating peripheral nerve injury or disease.

The study is usually done in conjunction with electromyography.

1. An electromyography in which the nerve of the muscle under study is stimulated by application of an electric current.
2. A method of measuring changes in a peripheral nerve by combining electromyography of a muscle with electrical stimulation of the nerve trunk carrying fibers to and from the muscle.
3. The recording of electrical activities of muscles induced by the electric stimulation of nerves.
electronic cinematography
Cinematography using an electronic video camera to create a videotape that can be viewed on a monitor, edited electronically, and transferred to film for motion-picture projectors.
electronic microradiography
1. A procedure in which electrons released from microscopic irradiated objects are used to produce a photographic image.
2. Microradiography of very thin specimens in which the emission of electrons from an irradiated object, either the specimen or a lead screen behind it, is used to produce a photographic image of the specimen, which is then enlarged.

Microradiography is a technique for the study of surfaces of solids by monochromatic-radiation (such as X-ray) contrast effects shown by means of projection or enlargement of a contact radiograph.

electronic radiography
1. A procedure in which an image generated by an irradiated object is converted into a signal for television viewing.
2. Radiography in which the image is detached by direct image converter tubes or by the use of television pickup or electronic scanning, and the resultant signals are amplified and presented for viewing on a kinescope or a recorded television program.

Related "writing" word units: glypto-; gram-; scrib-, script-.