grapho-, graph-, -graph, -graphy, -grapher, -graphia

(Greek: to scratch; to write, to record, to draw, to describe; that which is written or described)

As indicated at the bottom of this page, there is a significantly large number of graphic word-entry groups in this unit. Such an extensive listing is provided to show how important the grapho- element is to the English language.

1. A recording of uterine electrical activities.
2. A record of the electrical activity of the uterine muscular contractions.
1. The recording of changes in electric potential associated with contractions of the uterine muscles.
2. The process of recording and analyzing the electric action potentials that result from uterine muscular contractions.
1. A device designed to measure the speed of ocean currents, based on their electrical effects in the earth's magnetic field.
2. An instrument used to measure ocean current velocities based on their electrical effects in the magnetic field of the earth.
3. A device for determining the motion of ocean water by measuring its electric potentials as it moves through the earth's magnetic field.
electrokymograph (s) (noun), electrokymographs (pl)
1. An instrument that uses both a photoelectric recording system and a fluoroscope to make a record of the movements of a shadow within the fluoroscopic field: "Electrokymographs were once commonly used to study the movements of the heart."
2. A device that provides a continuous recording of the movements of an internal body organ; such as, the heart, generally by recording the movements or the changes in density of the shadow of the organ as presented on a fluoroscope.
3. An appliance which combines a photoelectric recording system with a fluoroscope in order to make it possible for the continuous recording of the movements of a shadow within the fluoroscopic field or of changes in density in that shadow.

1. A radiographic technique combining a photoelectric recording system with fluoroscopy.

It is used especially with electrocardiography to study heart motions.

2. The photography on x-ray film of the motions of the heart or of other moving structures which can be visualized radiographically.
3. The technique of recording the motions of a bodily organ with an electrokymograph.
electrolaryngograph, laryngograph, glottograph
1. An instrument for making a tracing of the movements of the vocal folds.
2. An instrument for recording the activity of the vocal cords during respiration and phonation or the rapid, periodic opening and closing of the glottis through separation and apposition of the vocal cords that, accompanied by breath under lung pressure, constitutes a source of vocal sounds.

The electrolaryngograph consists of a pair of electrodes, one for application to either side of the neck adjacent to the larynx, a generator, an amplifier, and an oscilloscope.

electrolaryngography, laryngography, electroglottography, glottography
A recording, using an electrolaryngograph, of the activity of the vocal cords from potentials arising in the laryngeal muscles during phonation (making sounds) and respiration.
electromagnetic oscillograph
1. An oscillograph that records signal waveforms by means of a moving-coil galvanometer or it is also known as a device for recording the wave-forms of changing currents, voltages, or any other quantity that can be translated into electric energy; such as, sound waves.
2. An oscillograph in which the recording mechanism is controlled by a moving-coil galvanometer; such as, a direct-writing recorder or a light-beam oscillograph (device for making a record of the wave forms of fluctuating voltages or currents).
An early form of a receiver for a telephone, invented by Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931), an American inventor who patented more than a thousand inventions, among them the microphone (1877), the phonograph (1878), and an incandescent lamp (1879).

In New York City, he installed the world's first central electric power plant (1881-1882).

1. A machine used for producing a graphical tracing of the electrical activity picked up via electrodes inserted into muscle tissue which is used to diagnose muscular ailments.

It consists of an amplifier, an electrically activated trace-drawing pen, and a moving strip of paper.

2. An instrument which records differences in the electric potential of muscles that is used to diagnose muscular ailments.

Similar to the electrocardiograph, the electromyograph picks up clicks from sick muscles.

Having to do with, referring to, or made by an electromyograph which is a tool which records differences in the electric potential of muscles.
electromyographic biofeedback
A therapeutic procedure that uses electronic or electromechanical instruments to measure, process, and feed back reinforcing information with auditory and visual signals accurately.

It is used to provide information about muscle activity during ambulation, for example, in patients with brain injury, stroke, or cerebral palsy.

electromyographic technician
A health-care provider with special training and experience to assist the physician in recording and analyzing muscle action potentials with the use of various electronic devices.
electromyography of pelvic floor sphincter
An electrodiagnostic test performed to evaluate the neuromuscular function of the urinary or anal sphincter (circular muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening).

It is done most often in patients with urinary or fecal incontinence.

Related "writing" word units: glypto-; gram-; scrib-, script-.