grapho-, graph-, -graph, -graphy, -grapher, -graphia

(Greek: to scratch; to write, to record, to draw, to describe; that which is written or described)

As indicated at the bottom of this page, there is a significantly large number of graphic word-entry groups in this unit. Such an extensive listing is provided to show how important the grapho- element is to the English language.

cryptography (s) (noun), cryptographies (pl)
1. The science or study of hidden writing; especially, unknown codes and ciphers: The objective of cryptography is to prevent information from falling into the hands of those who would use it against us.
2. The procedures and methods of making and using secret languages: If a new word for cryptography were to be invented today, it would probably be "secret communications."
A man is trying to interpret a cryptographic message.
A spy is deciphering a coded message.

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Someone who works in the branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals, their internal arrangements, and their properties.
A line of work in a branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals, their internal arrangements, and their properties: "Crystallography is the study of forms, structures, and the properties of crystals."
cymograph (s), cymographs (pl) (noun forms)
A scientific instrument consisting of a rotating drum holding paper on which a stylus traces a continuous record (as of breathing or blood pressure).
cymography, kymography (s) (nouns)
The use of a cymograph to record oscillating motion: "The technician used cymography to record the movements of the body organs."
A writing or treatise about dogs.
The record produced by a cyrtometer or an instrument registering chest wall excursions (movements of the chest wall in respiration).
An X-ray examination of the urinary bladder after the introduction of a liquid that is partially opaque to X-rays.

This type of examination frequently is part of a complete x-ray study of the kidneys, urethra, and ureters as well as the bladder. It is useful in diagnosing tumors or other defects in the bladder wall, vesicoureteral reflux (backward flow of urine from the bladder into a ureter), and calculi or other pathologic conditions of the bladder.

The graphic recording of the pressure exerted at varying degrees of filling of the urinary bladder.
A reference to radiography of the bladder and urethra.
Radiography of the bladder and urethra during voiding, following filling of the bladder with a radiopaque contrast medium either by intravenous injection or retrograde catheterization.
1. A radiographic examination of the lacrimal sac after its opacification by an instilled contrast medium.
2. A radiographic visualization of the lacrimal sacs and associated structures after injection of a contrast medium

Related "writing" word units: glypto-; gram-; scrib-, script-.