grapho-, graph-, -graph, -graphy, -grapher, -graphia

(Greek: to scratch; to write, to record, to draw, to describe; that which is written or described)

As indicated at the bottom of this page, there is a significantly large number of graphic word-entry groups in this unit. Such an extensive listing is provided to show how important the grapho- element is to the English language.

bolograph (s) (noun), bolographs (pl)
A record, or recordings, made by an instrument for measuring the radiant energy and the changes of resistance in electrical conductors: A bolograph is also defined as a signal that encodes something; such as, a picture or a sound which has been recorded.
botanography (s) (noun), botanographies (pl)
Written descriptions of plants or of various kinds of vegetations.
brachygraphic (adjective), more brachygraphic, brachygraphic most brachygraphic
Referring to an abbreviated or symbolic writing method which improves the speed or shortness of compositions as compared to a normal method of writing a language: A brachygraphic system of writing uses abbreviations or special characters in a shorthand method.
brachygraphically (adjective, more brachygraphically, most brachygraphically)
A description of any brief, rapid system of writing that may be used in transcribing, or recording the spoken words: The brachygraphically words include a typical shorthand system which provides symbols or abbreviations for words and common phrases, which can allow someone well-trained in the procedure to write as quickly as people speak.

Such systems, many having characters based on the letters of the alphabet, were used in ancient times; the shorthand of Tiro, Cicero's amanuensis, was used for centuries.

Modern systems date from 1588, when Timothy Bright published his 500-odd symbols for words; a French system was developed by Jacques Cossard in 1651, a German one in 1679. In 1602, Rev. John Willis published the Arte of Stenographie; there followed dozens of systems before 1837, when the shorthand of Isaac Pitman appeared.

The Pitman system, with improvements, is in wide use in English-speaking countries today; it is perhaps the most rapid shorthand system and is favored by many court and convention reporters.

brachygraphy (s) (noun), brachygraphies (pl)
The art or practice of writing with abbreviations or with abbreviated characters: Brachygraphies are now known as "shorthand" or "stenography".
bromograph (s) (noun), bromographs (pl)
A written composition about various kinds of food and their values to one's health.
bromography (s) (noun), bromographies (pl)
A treatise or dissertation about food and its contributions to the health of consumers.
bronchography (s) (noun, bronchographies (pl)
Radiography of the lungs after instillation of an opaque medium in the bronchi: The bronchography is an X-ray examination in which the branches of the bronchi are made more visible by lining them with an inhaled or injected material that is less visible to X-rays.
bronchospirography (s) (noun, bronchospirographies (pl)
Use of a single lumen endobronchial tube for measuring the breathing function of each area of the lung: The most accurate and practical means of estimating pulmonary functions is by using the methods of bronchospirography.
brontograph (s) (noun, brontographs (pl)
A chart showing thunder phenomena which is recorded by that instrument: The local TV was showing the brontographs of the storm that was going on in Joe's area.
brontographic (adjective), more brontographic, most brontographic
A reference to a recording that is associated with thunderstorms and their weather activities: James was startled when he was asleep and their were such loud brontographic sounds that woke him and his wife up during the night.
brontography (s) (noun), brontographies (pl)
An instrument for recording the phenomena associated with the scientific study of thunderstorms and of the dangers that they can have for people; especially at night!
cacographer (s) (noun), cacographers (pl)
Someone who has poor penmanship, incompetent grammatical usage, and inadequate spelling skills: The college professor arranged for three cacographers in his class to go to a special handwriting tutor to teach them calligraphy because they were writing so poorly that no one could read what they scribbled on their quizzes and tests.
cacographic (adjective), more cacographic, most cacographic
A reference to a bad speller or a bad writer; that is, grammatically and stylistically poor penmanship: Thomas overcame his more cacographic habits by working with a tutor and practicing his handwriting skills every day.
cacographical (adjective), more cacographical, most cacographical
Relating to bad handwriting: Cacographical penmanship is poor or illegible handwriting.

Cacographical writing is characterized by the presentation of poor spelling skills when writing.

Related "writing" word units: glypto-; gram-; scrib-, script-.