dic-, dict-

(Latin: talk, speak, say, tell, declare; to proclaim)

valedictory (s) (noun), valedictories (pl)
A farewell oration or speech; especially, one that is made at a graduation ceremony.
vendetta (s) (noun), vendettas (pl)
1. A prolonged bitter feud or quarrel: Despite living in the same house, Jake's parents maintained a vendetta with their closest neighbor with whom they had not spoken to directly for over five years.
2. A blood feud between families started by the killing of a member of one family that is then avenged by the killing of a member of the other family: The vendetta between two branches of the family had lasted so many years that no one actually remembered how it started or what it was all about.
3. Etymology: from Italian vendetta, "a feud, a blood feud"; from Latin vindicta, "revenge"; "vindictive"; from vim dicare, "to show authority"; from vim, accusative of vis, "force" + root of dicere, "to say".

English speakers borrowed vendetta from Italian, from which it ultimately traces to the Latin verb vindicare, "to lay claim to" or "to avenge". That Latin word is also in the family tree of many other English terms related to "getting even"; including avenge, revenge, vengeance, vindicate, and vindictive.

A feud that is goes on over time and is marked by bitter hostility.
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An prolonged and bitter rivalry or contention.
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vengeance (VEN juhns) (s) (noun), vengeances (pl)
1. Infliction of punishment in return for a wrong committed; retribution: Angry protestors in the country want to inflict vengeance on the president for sending snipers to shoot and to kill so many rebels who were demonstrating against the government.

Henry attacked his sister's husband to get vengeance for her murder.

2. With great force or effort: The winter storm struck with a vengeance, destroying many trees and homes.

Sharon set to work with a vengeance and finished her assignment in three hours instead of the usual eight hours.

3. Etymology: from Anglo-French vengeaunce, Old French vengeance, "revenge"; from vengier, "to take revenge"; from Latin vindicare, "to set free, to claim, to avenge".
Punishment inflicted in return for an offense or injury.
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vengeful (adjective), more vengeful, most vengeful
1. Referring to someone who expresses a strong desire to harm others in return for perceived injuries: The ex-criminal was committing vengeful acts against the community where he was convicted by robbing their banks.
2. Etymology: formed on the analogy or similarity of revengeful from the out-dated verb venge; from Old French venger; from Latin vindicare, "to punish, to inflict pain or evil on a wrongdoer".
vengefully (adverb), more vengefully, most vengefully
Descriptive of feeling, showing, or having a desire to hurt someone or others: Manfred's brother vengefully shot his partner when she threatened to leave him during a severe argument.
verdict (s) (noun), verdicts (pl)
1. The decision of a jury in a civil or criminal case about an issue which has been submitted to their judgement: The members of the jury debated the evidence for several hours before finally reaching a verdict.
2. A decision or opinion pronounced or expressed about some matter or subject; a finding, a conclusion, or a judgement: The academic committee at the university reached a unanimous verdict about the admission of the new candidate for the doctoral program.
3. Etymology: from verdit,, the Anglo-Norman variant of Old French veirdit., "true statement, sworn testimony" which evolved from verdit, the Anglo-Norman variant of Old French veirdit., " a true saying" or "report".

This was a compound formed from veir "true" (a descendant of Latin verum, related to English very) and dit, "a saying, a speech"; which came from Latin dictionem, "a saying, an expression, a word".

veridical (adjective), more veridical, most veridical
1. A reference to telling the truth or being honest: The witness gave veridical testimony as to what really happened the night the teenager was shot on the street.
2. Characterized by something that corresponds with facts or to reality, and therefore is genuine or real: Jimmy had a veridical hallucination that his parents were injured in an auto accident which turned out to be true.
3. Etymology: from Latin veridicus; from verus, "true" + dicere, "to say".
vindicate (VIN di kayt") (verb), vindicates; vindicated; vindicating
1. To clear someone or something of blame, guilt, suspicion, or doubt: The confession of the real criminal immediately vindicated Jasper who the police had held for questioning about the break-in of the local jewelry store.
2. To show that someone or something is justified or correct: Marilyn checked with a dictionary resource to vindicate the unusual spelling of a word in her essay.
3. To clear from censure, criticism, suspicion, or doubt, by means of demonstration; to justify or uphold by evidence or argument: The new evidence that was presented in the criminal trial immediately vindicated the defense lawyer's position that her client was innocent.
4. To assert, to maintain, to make good, by means of action; especially, in one's own interest; to defend against encroachment or interference: The doctor's prognosis of the severity of the patient's illness was vindicated by a specialist.
5. Etymology: back formation from vim dictam accusative form of vis dicta, literally "announced force"; that is, "announcement of force".

From "to avenge" or "to revenge", from Latin vindicatus, the past participle form of vindicare, "to set free, to lay claim to, to assert, to avenge" which came from vim, accusative of vis, "force" + the root of dicere, "to say".

To support or to maintain or to sustain one's honor.
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vindication (s) (noun), vindications (pl)
1. The act of defending against being blamed for or suspicion of doing something wrong: The vindication of the doctor for his unusual medical treatment was supported by the patient's miraculous recovery.
2. An action or circumstance which is proven to be reasonable or justified: Karl's decision to complete his computer programming at the university was a vindication that prepared him for his successful technical career.
vindicator (s) (noun), vindicators (pl)
1. Someone who argues to defend or to justify some policy or institution: Henry was a vindicator for telling the truth and being an honest politician.
2. Those who proclaim justification for certain actions or policies: The vindicators maintained that the violent back ground of the suspect justified the use of force by the police.
vindicatory (adjective), more vindicatory, most vindicatory
Relating to something; such as, facts or an argument that justifies a belief, a conclusion, or an action: Mike's vindicatory decision to continue with his project was well received by his superiors at the automobile company.
vindictive (adjective), more vindictive, most vindictive
1. A reference to doing something with a desire for vengeance: Driving his car over the newly planted garden next door was really the most vindictive thing Sam could do in response to his neighbor's criticism about making so much noise last night.
The cook is going to get revenge with a pie in the face of a customer who criticized the chef.
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Minister of church is about to deliver an unforgiving sermon about satan.
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2. Relating to showing or doing something with a desire to hurt another person: The more angry Rose became, the more vindictive she was in terms of planning her revenge for the insults that her co-worker made about her incompetence.
Former girlfriend retaliates against boyfriend who marries a different woman.
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Revengeful in spirit.
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3. In law, used to describe damages awarded by a court that are set higher than the amount necessary to compensate the victim, in order to punish the defendant: The judge exercised a vindictive judgment in ordering the accused to pay the court costs of the trial as a lesson not to attempt to exploit the legal system again.
vindictively (adverb), more vindictively, most vindictively
In a revengeful manner: Patricia plotted vindictively against her former employer because she was convinced that he was not justified in reducing her pension.
vindictiveness (s) (noun) (no plural)
A spiteful situation that is marked by or which results from a desire to hurt another person or other individuals: Karen's husband showed a vindictiveness towards her during the divorce proceedings because of her accusations that he was unfaithful, which he strongly denied.
vindictivolence (s) (noun), vindictivolences (pl)
1. A reprisal or retaliation against someone who is considered to have done a harmful thing to another person: Maxine was considering a vindictivolence, or repayment, for a neighbor who threw rocks onto her lawn; however, her religious beliefs made her reconsider any such action and so she gathered the stones and put them in a corner of her backyard.
2. Etymology: from Latin vindicta, "avenge, vengeance (punishment inflicted)" + volent, "wishing".

Although the following cartoon is about an adjective vindictive, it also illustrates the meaning of the noun vindictivolence!

Unforgiving, spiteful, bitter, and revengeful.
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Cross references of word families related directly, or indirectly, to: "talk, speak, speech; words, language; tongue, etc.": cit-; clam-; fa-; -farious; glosso-; glotto-; lalo-; linguo-; locu-; logo-; loqu-; mythico-; -ology; ora-; -phasia; -phemia; phon-; phras-; Quotes: Language,Part 1; Quotes: Language, Part 2; Quotes: Language, Part 3; serm-; tongue; voc-.