-ation, -ization (-iz[e] + -ation); -isation (British spelling variation)
(Greek > Latin: a suffix; action, act, process, state, or condition; or result of doing something)
Although there are over 1,450 word entries ending with -ation or -ization listed in this unit, there are certainly many more which exist in the English language. At any rate, this unit provides a significant number of -ation and -ization examples for you to see.
2. A process based on bifunctional (two functional) ion-exchange resins containing both anion (negatively charged ion) and cation (positively charged ion) adsorption sites, which removes both kinds of ions from solutions.
The atom is then called an ion.2. A process in which electrically neutral atoms or molecules are converted to electrically charged atoms or molecules (ions) by the removal or addition of negatively charged electrons.
It is one of the principal ways in which radiation transfers energy to matter, and hence of detecting radiation.
In general, ionization occurs whenever sufficiently energetic charged particles or radiant energy travels through gases, liquids, or solids.
A certain minimal level of ionization is present in the earth's atmosphere because of continuous absorption of cosmic rays from space and ultraviolet radiation from the sun.3. The process by which a neutral atom, or a cluster of such atoms, becomes an ion.
This may occur, for instance, by absorption of light ("photoionization") or by a collision with a fast particle ("impact ionization").
Also, certain molecules (such as table salt or sodium chloride, NaCl) are formed by natural ions (like Na+ and Cl-) held together by their electric attraction, and they may fall apart when dissolved in water (which weakens the attraction), enabling the solution to conduct electricity.4. Production of charged atoms or molecules in a gas by electric discharge or by irradiation.
2. Arcing across satellite antenna terminals as the satellite passes through the ionized regions of the ionosphere.
3. An electric spark which is created when ionized charges build up in a medium and produce forces on the electrons.
2. A device used to detect and measure ionizing radiation, consisting of a gas-filled tube with electrodes at each end between which a voltage is maintained.
Radiation that ionizes gas molecules in the tube causes a current between the electrodes, the strength of which is a function of the radiation's intensity.3. A gas-filled enclosure fitted with electrodes between which electric current flows upon ionization of the gas by incident radiation, the electrodes being maintained at a potential difference just sufficient to collect ions thus produced without causing further ionization.
4. The device for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation.
It consists basically of a sealed chamber containing a gas and two electrodes between which a voltage is maintained by an external circuit.
When ionizing radiation; such as, a photon, enters the chamber (through a foil-covered window), it ionizes one or more gas molecules.
The ions are attracted to the oppositely charged electrodes; their presence causes a momentary drop in the voltage, which is recorded by the external circuit.
The observed voltage drop helps identify the radiation because it depends on the degree of ionization, which in turn depends on the charge, mass, and speed of the photon.
A Geiger-Müller counter results from the application of a still-higher voltage across the electrodes of a proportional counter.
Individual particles of various kinds and energies entering a Geiger-Müller counter produce essentially the same large output pulse, making the instrument an excellent counter of individual particles.
The mixture of gases within a Geiger counter quenches the avalanche of ions produced by a single particle of radiation so that the device can recover to detect another particle.
An additional significant increase in voltage causes a continuous current to flow through the gas between the electrodes, rendering the device useless for detecting radiation.
2. An equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.
3. A constant that depends upon the equilibrium between the ions and the molecules that are not ionized in a solution or liquid.
2. An area in which the probability that an atom or ion will undergo ionization when it collides with a particle or photon of sufficient energy is measured.
2. A positive-ion current produced by collisions between electrons and residual gas molecules in an electron tube.
2. The proportion of potential ionization that has taken place for an ionizable material in a solution or reaction mixture.
2. The energy required o remove completely the weakest bound electron from its ground state in an atom or molecule so that the resulting ion is also in its ground state.
3. Amount of energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom or molecule.
There is an ionization potential for each successive electron removed, though that associated with removing the first (most loosely held) electron is most commonly used.
The ionization potential of an element is a measure of its ability to enter into chemical reactions requiring ion formation or donation of electrons and is related to the nature of the chemical bonding in the compounds formed by elements.
2. A transition region that separates interstellar gas in which a given atomic species, usually hydrogen, is mostly ionized from interstellar gas in which it is essentially neutral.
"Bragg scattering" and "Bragg angles" are named after, Sir William Henry Bragg (1862–1942), and his son, Sir William Lawrence Bragg (1890–1971); English physicists and Nobel prize winners in 1915.
2. Referring to a gas tube, the time interval between the initiation of conditions for and the establishment of conduction at some stated value of tube voltage drop.
2. The subjective perception of iridescent halos around lights, occurring in glaucoma.