-tron, -tronic, -tronics +

(Greek: a suffix referring to a device, tool, or instrument; more generally, used in the names of any kind of chamber or apparatus used in experiments)

A possible allusion to the Greek instrumental suffix, as in árotron, "plow" as spelled in the U.S. or "plough", as spelled by the British; from the Greek stem aroun, "to plow".

The suffix -tron is the result of the combining form extracted from electron, used with nouns or combining forms, principally in the names of electron tubes (ignitron; klystron; magnetron) and of devices for accelerating subatomic particles (cosmotron; cyclotron); also, more generally, in the names of any kind of chamber or apparatus used in experiments (biotron).

electron beam generator, electron-beam generator
1. A device; such as, a klystron, in which the velocity of an electron beam is kept at a constant level in order to produce exceedingly high radio frequencies.
2. Velocity-modulated generator, such as a klystron tube (type of vacuum tube used as an amplifier), used to generate extremely high radio frequencies.

A klystron is an evacuated electron-beam tube in which an initial velocity modulation imparted to electrons in the beam results subsequently in density modulation of the beam. A klystron is used either as an amplifier in the microwave region or as an oscillator.

electron binding energy
1. The minimum amount of energy required to extract an electron from an atom or molecule.
2. The energy required to release an electron from its atomic or molecular orbital.
electron bombardment induced conductivity, electron-bombardment-induced conductivity
1. In a multimode display-storage tube, a process in which an electron gun is used to erase the image on a cathode-ray tube interface.
2. A method of writing and storing large numbers of information elements electrostatically on the storage tape of a television information storage tube.

A dielectric-coated optical grating on the tape is bombarded with 10-keV electrons to induce momentary conductivity.

This causes electrons to flow fro the dielectric to the metal base of the tape.

Elemental areas on the surface of the tape lose charge in proportion to light from corresponding elemental areas of the image being stored.

electron capture detector, electron-capture detector
1. A device used in gas chromatography, in which carrier gas molecules flowing through the ionization chamber are radiated and low-energy electrons are formed.

Certain compounds entering the chamber have an affinity for these electrons, and this decrease in electrons is recorded for component identification.

2. An extremely sensitive gas chromatography detector that is a modification of the argon ionization detector, with conditions adjusted to favor the formation of negative ions.
3. An item of laboratory equipment used coupled to a gas chromatograph for the detection and quantification of very minute amounts halogenated organic compounds.
electron capture, electron attachment
1. A process in which an inner shell electron is captured by the nucleus of its own atom.

The mass number is unchanged, but the atomic number is decreased by one and this process is accompanied by the emission of a neutrino.

2. A radioactive decay process in which an atomic nucleus with an excess of protons draws an electron into itself, creating a neutron out of a proton and thus decreasing the atomic number by one.

Often the resulting nucleus is unstable and achieves stability by giving off a gamma ray.

electron carrier
1. A protein; such as, flavoprotein or cytochrome, which can gain and lose electrons in either direction and can transport electrons from one compound to another compound or to oxygen.
2. A molecule that accepts electrons from electron donors and donates them to electron acceptors, creating an energy-producing electron transport chain; such as, that which occurs in respiration and photosynthesis.
3. A molecule associated with membrane-bound proteins that accepts and transfers electrons.
4. Any of various molecules that are capable of accepting one or two electrons from one molecule and donating them to another in the process of electron transport.

As the electrons are transferred from one electron carrier to another carrier, their energy level decreases, and energy is released.

electron cloud
1. An average region around the nucleus of an atom, in which the electrons are predicted to be at certain states of excitation.
2. The group or system of electrons revolving around the nucleus of an atom; a cloud-like group of electrons.
3. In a vacuum tube, the area between the electrodes that contains a great number of relatively stationary electrons.
electron compound, Hume-Rothery compound, intermetallic compound
1. In a phase diagram one of several homogeneous phases that has a specific crystal structure and a specific valence electron-to-atom ratio.
2. An alloy of two metals in which a progressive change in composition is accompanied by a progression of phases, differing in crystal structure.
electron configuration
1. A configuration that shows the way in which the electrons in an atom occupy, in order of increasing energy, the available orbitals and spin states.
2. The orbital arrangement of an atom's electrons.

Negatively charged electrons are attracted to a positively charged nucleus to form an atom or an ion.

3. The arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure; such as, a crystal.
4. The specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or or ions.
electron coupler, Cuccia coupler
1. An instrument that increases the power of a microwave tube by submitting its electron beam to changing periods of speeding up and slowing down.
2. A microwave amplifier tube where electron bunching is produced by an electron beam projected parallel to a magnetic field and is also influenced by a transverse electric field produced by a signal generator.
electron coupling, electronic coupling
1. A procedure in which two circuits in an electron tube transfer energy generated by the electron stream passing between the electrodes of one of the circuits.
2. A method of coupling electrical energy from one circuit to another through the electron stream in a vacuum tube.
3. A process of coupling or linking two circuits inside an electron tube, used primarily with multigrid tubes.

The electron stream passing between electrodes in one circuit transfers energy to electrodes in the other circuit.

electron cyclotron resonance source, ECR source, electron cyclotron resonance ion source, ECRIS
1. A source of multiple charged heavy ions which uses microwave power to increase electron energy to extremely high levels in two magnetic-mirror confinement chambers connected in a series.
2. An electrode supplying current of charged heavy ions that uses microwave power to heat electrons to energies of tens of kilovolts in two magnetic mirror confinement chambers in a series.

Ions formed in the first chamber drift into the second chamber, where they become charged.

electron cyclotron wave, whistler wave
1. A circularly polarized wave found in a plasma that runs parallel to the magnetic field produced by electric currents outside the plasma.
2. A wave in a plasma that moves parallel to the magnetic field produced by currents outside the plasma at frequencies less than that of the electron cyclotron resonance, and which is circularly polarized, rotating in the same sense as electrons in the plasma; responsible for whistlers.

A whistler is defined as an effect that occurs when a plasma disturbance, caused by a lightning discharge, travels out along lines of magnetic force of the earth's field and is reflected back to its origin from a magnetic point on the earth's surface.

electron density
1. The number of electrons per a unit volume or in a unit volume.
2. The quantum mechanical probability density for an electron.
electron device
1. An instrument whose operation involves the motion of electrical charge carriers in a gas, semiconductor, or vacuum.
2. A device or tool in which conduction is principally by electrons moving through a vacuum, gas, or semiconductor; such as, in a crystal diode, electron tube, transistor, or selenium rectifier.