trans-, tran-, tra-
(Latin: across, through, over, beyond; on the far side of)
Don't confuse the tra- in this element with another tra- in "drag" or "draw". Trans- becomes tra- before the consonants -d, -j, -l, -m, -n, and -v.
TTTS occurs in monochorionic, monozygotic twins. The donor twin is often smaller and anemic at birth. The recipient twin is usually larger and plethoric at birth.2. Also known as Feto-Fetal Transfusion Syndrome (FFTS) and Twin Oligohydramnios-Polyhydramnios Sequence (TOPS) is a complication with high morbidity and mortality that can affect identical twins or higher multiple pregnancies where two or more fetuses share a common (monochorionic) placenta.
In twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, the twins share not only the same placenta but some of the same blood circulation; in other words, they essentially share a single blood supply. This allows the transfusion of blood from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient).
The donor twin becomes small and anemic, and the recipient twin becomes large and overloaded with blood.
The transfusion causes the donor twin to have decreased blood volume, retarding the donor's development and growth, and also decreased urinary output, leading to a lower than normal level of amniotic fluid (becoming oligohydramnios).
The blood volume of the recipient is increased, which can strain the donor's heart and eventually lead to heart failure, and also higher than normal urinary output, which can lead to excess amniotic fluid (becoming polyhydramnios).
2. A transformer utilized o transform voltage with little or no current.
3. A small step-up transformer used for increasing the sensitivity for an AC voltmeter.
4. An instrument transformer that has a primary winding connected in parallel with a circuit in which the voltage is to be measured or controlled.
2. Saturated-core type of a transformer that holds output voltage to within a few percent (5% above or below normal) with input variations up to 20% above or below normal;.
Considerable harmonic distortion results unless extensive filters are utilized.
2. The surgical transfer of cells, tissues, or especially whole organs from one species to another.
The rationale for xenotransplantation is the short supply of human organs for transplantation.
The first to show that nonhuman organs could be transplanted to humans and function for a significant period of time was Dr. Keith Reemtsma (1925-2000).
At Tulane University in New Orleans, Dr. Reemtsma in 1963 and 1964 gave chimpanzee kidneys to five patients in the first chimpanzee-to-human transplants. The recipients died (of infection) from eight to sixty-three days after receiving a chimpanzee kidney.
Then, in 1964, Reemtsma transplanted a kidney from a chimpanzee to a 23-year-old teacher. She lived with it for nine months until succumbing to overwhelming infection.
Xenotransplantation is synonymous with "cross-species transplantation".