terr-, terra-, -ter

(Latin: earth, dry land, land)

This unit presents many words that are used in references having to do with earth and land; that is, the loose, fragmented material that composes part of the surface of this planet that we live on.

Don't confuse this element with other words that are spelled in a similar way; such as, terrify, terrible.

territorial waters (pl) (noun)
Inland and coastal waters under the jurisdiction of a nation or state: Territorial waters of the ocean lying within three or twelve miles (4.8 or 19.3 kilometers) of the shoreline.
territorialism (s) (noun), territorialisms (pl)
1. A social system that gives authority and influence in a state to the landowners: The owners of land were very happy to have an establishment of territorialism in their nation.
2. A system of church government based on primacy of civil power: The ecclesiastical term territorialism used to be a Protestant theory stating that a civil administration had the right to decide which religious beliesf were allowed in a state.
territorialist (s) (noun), territorialists (pl)
A supporter of territorialism: As a agriculturist, Mr. Thompson was a territorialist along with his friends who also had farms of their own.
territoriality, territory maintenance (s) (noun); territorialities; territory maintenances (pl)
A behavior pattern in animals consisting of the occupation and defense of a territory: Territoriality is the behavior pattern in some animals in which they tend to remain within a certain area, primarily for the purpose of feeding, mating, and rearing their young and importantly this area is defended against members of the same species and also sometimes with other similar species.

territorialize (verb), territorializes; territorialized; territorializing
1. To make a territory of; to organize as a territory: In the story the settlers decided to territorialize pieces of empty land for their own use.
2. To extend by adding new territory: Thee are countries that want to territorialize their own country in order to enlarge their size and power in the world.
territorially  (adverb), more territorially, most territorially
1. Concerning how a territory is involved: In the adventure story, one certain nation wanted to expand territorially and started to invade the neighbouring country.
2. Regarding how something is done in a protective manner: When suddenly strangers appeared in his garden, Jack reacted territorially and told them to leave immediately!
4. Referring to how a land area is protected: In the book James was reading, the inhabitants were defending their area or region territorially from the intruders.
territory (s) (noun), territories (pl)
1. An area of land: Usually territory refers to a large tract of land, like a region or a country.
2. The land and waters under the jurisdiction of a government: A territory is a large area whose borders are established by the terms of a government, and not by natural features like rivers or mountains.
3. A political subdivision of a country; a geographic region: Aterritory can be exemplified by a colonial possession, that is dependent on an external government, such as the territories of the Holy Roman Empire.
4. A subdivision of the United States that is not a state and is administered by an appointed or elected governor and elected legislature: Another territory is a similarly organized political subdivision of Canada and Australia.
5. An area for which a person is responsible as a representative or an agent: Tom was a a salesperson and had his own territory where he sold his articles. .
6. In biology, an area occupied by a single animal, mating pair, or group: It is usual for animals to vigorously defend their territory against intruders, especially those of the same species.
7. Etymology, about 1432, "land under the jurisdiction of a town, state, etc.", probably from Latin territorium "land around a town, domain, district", from terra "earth, land".

An alternate theory, somewhat supported by the vowels of the original Latin word, suggests derivation from terrere "to frighten"; as in terrible; therefore, territorium would mean "a place from which people are warned off".

The meaning of "any tract of land, district, region" is first indicated in 1610. Specific U.S. sense of "organized self-governing region not yet a state" is from 1799. Territorial waters is traced back to 1841; territorial imperative "animal need to claim and defend territory" is recorded from 1966.

terroir (s), terroirs (pl) (nouns)
The combination of local conditions or factors, including soil, climate, and the environment, all give a particular wine or a family of wines their distinctive character: "The superior quality of Burgundy wine depends on the French term of terroir (land, earth) because the mix of geography, geology and the influences of other elements determine the quality of wines."

"When wine specialists sip an outstanding wine, some of them will say, 'It's the terroir that made this possible!' "

torrefaction, torrification (s) (noun), torrefactions (pl)
1. A procedure used to dry or roast with an anaerobic heat treatment: In order to make wood waterproof, a process of torrefaction is necessary.
2. The process of drying by exposure to heat or fire:The procedure of torrefaction involves exposing something to heat or highly acidic material.
3. In pharmacy, the drying or roasting of drugs on a metalline plate, placed over or close to coals of fire: In the course of torrefaction the drugs become friable to the fingers (easily crumbled or pulverized or reduced to powder), or until some other desired effect is produced.
torrefied (adjective), more torrefied, most torrefied
Regarding something that has been dried or roasted: The company replaced a large percentage of the coal with torrefied wood which is a process of roasting wood chips in a large furnace to remove the moisture and make the product more brittle and easier to burn.
torrefied rhubarb (s)  (noun), torrefied rhubarb; torrefied rhubarbs (pl)
Rhubarb that has had its purgative powers diminished by roasting: Torrefied rhubarbcan have the effect cleansing of the bowels, but its astringency is not affected.

"Astringency" is the taste experience that takes place when a substance causes the mouth to pucker.

torrefy, torrify (noun); torrefies, torrefied, torrefying; torrifies, torrified, torrifying
1. To dry drugs, ores, etc. by subjection to intense heat: Metallic ores are usually terrified to have an intended result.
2. To dry or to parch: Drugs can be torrefied on a metallic plate until they are reduced to the condition desired.
3. Etymology: from French torréfier, from Latin torrefacere, which came from torrere, "to dry, to parch" + facere, "to make".
torrid (adjective), torrider, torridest
1. Referring to something extremely hot and unpleasant: With a torrid weather condition and a torrid summer, it has been a terribly difficult summer.

Linda's parents brought along a big umbrella to the picnic so they could decrease the heat of the torrid sun.
2. Concerning a steamy, passionate love or the show or expression of very strong feelings, especially of sexual or romantic desires: Jack and Jill y were known to have had a torrid love affair.

There were rumors that Mrs. Black's boss and his secretary were having a torrid affair.

3. Regarding the condition of being fast-paced; rapid: Sam had a hard time keeping up with the torrid pace of his jogging partner.
4. Primarily British: very difficult, uncomfortable, or very unpleasant: The soccer team had a torrid time trying to make a score.
4. Etymology: Derived from Latin torridus, "dried from the heat; very hot".

Torrid usually describes things that are physically hot; in both the literal and the figurative senses, like the sun, or figuratively hot, like passion; for example, "a torrid love affair" is one full of hot passion.

tureen (s) (noun), tureens (pl)
1. A large deep brass serving dish with a lid: Barbara's grandmother had a large tureen for serving soups and stews for dinner.

In earlier days the brass serving tureen was called a "terrene"..
2. Etymology, about 1706, from French terrine "earthen vessel".

About 1412, from Old French therine,

Also from terrin (adj) "earthen", from Gallo-Romance terrinus-

And from Latin terrenus "of the earth".

The spelling with u may be an everyday equivalent to e before r and is said to have arisen in cookbooks.

—Info from Barnhart

Cross references of word families related directly, or indirectly, to: "land, ground, fields, soil, dirt, mud, clay, earth (world)": agra-; agrest-; agri-; agro-; argill-; choro-; chthon-; epeiro-; geo-; glob-; lut-; myso-; pedo-; pel-; rhyp-; soil-; sord-.