super-, supra-, sur-

(Latin: above, over; more than, excessive)

Sur- is a variation of super- developed through the French and shouldn't be confused with another assimilated sur- form that comes from sub- and means: "under, below, beneath".

In some words, super- is amplified to mean: "on top of; higher in rank or position than; superior to; greater in quality, amount, or degree than others of its kind".

1. Incapable of being surmounted, passed over, or overcome.
2. Too great to be overcome.
Levator labii superioris et nasi. (Latin term)
Translation: "Lifter of the upper lip and the nose."

A medical term for the muscle in the upper lip.

Both above and toward the middle.
pedogeochemical survey
A geochemical prospecting survey in which the materials sampled are soil and till.
Situated posteriorly and superiorly.
1. An expensive prime cut of beef used for roasting or steaks, taken from the lower part of the ribs or the upper loin.
2. Etymology: from about 1525, serlyn, from Middle French surlonge; literally, "upper part of the loin", from sur, "over, above" + longe, "loin"; from Old French loigne, "side of the body of an animal used for food".
soil survey
The systematic examination, description, classification, and mapping of soils in a given area.
1. A woman, girl, or young boy with the highest register of singing voice.
2. The highest register of singing voice a woman, girl, or boy can have.
3. A singing part written for someone with the highest register of voice.
4. A musical instrument; especially, a wind instrument, with the highest or second-highest pitch of instruments in its family.
5. Etymology: "the highest singing voice", from Italian soprano, "the treble in music"; literally, "high", from sopra, "above"; from Latin supra, singular of super.
1. A pretty, flirtatious woman's role in a comedy; especially, one in which she plays a lady's maid involved in romantic intrigues.
2. Etymology: from about 1753, "theatrical jargon for lady's maid characters in plays and operas, who were usually pretty, flirtatious, and intriguing."

From French, soubreto, "affected, conceited"; feminine of soubret, "coy, reserved", from soubra, "to set aside"; originally, "to exceed", from Old Provence sobrar, from Latin superare, "to rise above, to overcome"; from super, "over, above, beyond".

1. Someone who exercises supreme, permanent authority; especially, in a nation or other governmental unit, as: (a) A king, queen, or other noble person who serves as chief of state; a ruler or monarch; (b) A national governing council or committee.
2. A nation that governs territory outside its borders.
3. A gold coin formerly used in Great Britain.
4. Etymology: from about 1280, from Old French soverain, from Vulgar Latin superanus, "chief, principal"; which came from Latin super, "over".

The spelling of the English word sovereign (with g) is believed to be a result of the influence of reign, with which the word sovereign was associated according to folk etymology.

1. Supreme authority, especially over a state or country.
2. The right to self-government without interference from outside by others.
3. A politically independent state.
4. Royal rank, authority, or power.
subsurface (s) (noun), subsurfaces (pl)
Relating to, or situated in an area beneath top of something; especially, of the earth or of a body of water.
sum (s) (noun), sums (pl)
1. The aggregate of two or more numbers, magnitudes, quantities, or particulars as determined by or as if by the mathematical process of addition: "The sum of 5 and 11 is 16."
2. A particular aggregate or total; especially, with reference to money: "The expenses for the trip came to a reasonable sum."
3. An indefinite amount or quantity; especially, of money: "They were willing to lend small sums for emergencies."
4. A series of numbers or quantities to be added up.
5. The full amount, or the whole.
6. The substance, or gist, of a matter, comprehensively or broadly viewed or expressed: "He submitted the sum of his opinions based on his analysis of the situation."
7. A concise or brief form.
8. Etymology: from about 1290, "quantity or amount of money", from Anglo-French and Old French summe; from Latin summa, "total number, whole, essence, gist". It is the noun use of summus, "highest".

The sense development from "highest" to "total number" is probably via the Roman custom of adding up a stack of figures from the bottom and writing the sum at the top, rather than at the bottom as we do now.

summarily (adverb), more summarily, most summarily
1. Immediately and without discussion or attention to formalities.
2. In a prompt or direct manner; immediately: Because they were goofing off, the foreman summarily fired two of the workers.
3. Etymology: from Middle Latin summarius, "of or pertaining to the sum or substance"; from Latin summa, "whole, gist"; from summus, "highest".
summarize (verb), summarizes; summarized; summarizing
1. To give a shortened version of something that has been said or written, stating its main points.
2. To give a recapitulation of the salient (prominent, worthy of note, pertinent, or relevant) facts; to recapitulate (repeat in a concise form), or review.

Related "above, over, beyond the normal, excessive" word units: epi-; hyper-; ultra-, ult-.

Inter-related cross references, directly or indirectly, involving word units meaning "more, plentiful, fullness, excessive, over flowing": copi-; exuber-; hyper-; multi-; opulen-; ple-; pleio-; plethor-; poly-; total-; ultra-; undu-.