super-, supra-, sur-

(Latin: above, over; more than, excessive)

Sur- is a variation of super- developed through the French and shouldn't be confused with another assimilated sur- form that comes from sub- and means: "under, below, beneath".

In some words, super- is amplified to mean: "on top of; higher in rank or position than; superior to; greater in quality, amount, or degree than others of its kind".

surcingle
A belt, band, or girth which passes over a saddle, or over anything laid on a horse's back, to bind it securely.
surcoat
1. A short tunic worn over a knight's armor in medieval times.
2. A short sleeveless garment worn as part of the ceremonial costume of an order of knighthood.
3. A loose outer coat or gown.
surface (s) (noun), surfaces (pl)
1. The topmost layer of something:The surface of the road was getting rough and bumpy.
2. The outer face, outside, or exterior boundary of something: Sam's dishes have shiny surfaces.
3. Any face of a body or thing: There are six surfaces on a cube.

The surface of the wooden box is rough.

Joe was warned to be careful of the icy surfaces on the streets.

4. Etymology: from Latin I>sur, "above" + face-, "face".
surface (adjective), more surface, most surface
1. A reference to being above or external of something: Jim had a surface view of the canyon below him.
2. Pertaining to being superficial or external: Joan had a surface expression on her face when she was told that she could not go to the movie.
3. Going by land or water and not by air or underground: The postman delivered the surface mail as expected.

The city had the best surface transits in the country.

surface (verb), surfaces; surfaced; surfacing
1. To make something smooth, even, or plain: The workers will surface the rough road again so it will not be so bumpy.
2. To rise to the top: The submarine surfaced to the top of the water in the harbor.

The dolphins were surfacing and diving back into the water over and over again.

3. To appear or to become obvious after being out of sight: After some years, the actor surfaced in a very funny comedy.
surfacer
1. In construction, a paint used to smooth the surface before finish coats are applied.
2. A form of machine for dressing the surface of wood, metal, stone, etc.
surfeit (s) (noun), surfeits (pl)
1. An excessive number or quantity of something, especially so much of it that people become sickened, repelled, or bored by it.
2. Overindulgence, or a bout of overindulgence, in something, especially food or drink.
3. Disgust or revulsion resulting from overindulgence.
4. Etymology: from Old French surfet, "excess"; noun use of surfaire "to overdo"; from sur-, "over" + faire, "to do"; from Latin facere, "to make".
surfeit (verb), surfeits; surfeited; surfeiting
1. To feed or to supply to excess or disgust: Mac was so surfeited with office work that he almost quit his job.

The issue of immigrants, who are trying to leave their various geographical areas and are surfeiting into European countries in hopes of refuge, has become a serious problem!

2. Etymology: from Old French surfet, "excess"; from Latin surfaire "to overdo"; from sur-, "over" + faire, "to do" which is from Latin facere, "to make".

The sense of "eat or drink to excess, overfeed", is first recorded in Middle English in 1422.

The figurative sense of "fill or supply to excess" is first recorded in 1592.

—Compiled from The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology
by Robert K. Barnhart, Editor; The H.W. Wilson Company;
1988; page 1,095.
To disgust or to sicken by excess.
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To satiate or to feed excessively.
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surfeiter (s) (noun), surfeiters (pl)
Someone who over indulges or consumes too much; especially, of food or drink.
surmise (verb), surmises; surmised; surmising
1. To infer or to guess something without sufficient and conclusive evidence: Janet and David surmised that they had finally located the meeting point for the hikers because there were other people there with backpacks and sturdy shoes waiting together in the parking lot next to the forest.
2. An idea or opinion based on inadequate and unconvincing proof; a conjecture: When Nicole came home after the staff meeting, there wasn’t any dinner left for her; so, she surmised that it had tasted so good that her family could not stop eating all of it!
3. An idea or thought of something as being possible or likely: Jane surmised that the good-looking man must be a prominent person because everybody in front of the theater was asking him for his autograph!
To infer or to think without strong evidence.
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To image something without specific knowledge.
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surmiser
1. Someone who thinks or infers without certain or strong evidence; a guesser.
3. Anyone who has an idea or opinion based on insufficiently conclusive evidence; a person who makes conjectures or who simply guesses.
surmount (verb), surmounts; surmounted; surmounting
1. To overcome an obstacle, for example; to conquer or to deal with a difficulty successfully: Jane’s new year’s resolution was to lose weight and so she surmounted the urge to eat her favorite desserts, like chocolate ice cream, cake, and cookies.
2. To ascend to the top of; to climb; to get over the top of a physical obstacle: It was the first time for Lynn to go hiking in the Alps, but she was able to surmount and master the strain, hindrances, and hazards that accompanied the task of reaching the top of the peak.
3. To place something above; to put on top; that is, to be above or on top of: The mountain of Marburg is surmounted by the Marburger Schloss, which is a very old castle, built in the 11th century.
4. To surpass or to exceed in an amount or quantity: Mark loved reading and the quantity of books that he bought during the year surmounted the number he had obtained the year before; however, he read all of them!
To overcome a condition or situation.
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To conquer an obstacle and to get to the top of a way of life.
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surmountable
1. Capable of being surmounted or overcome.
2. Being able to surpass in quality or attainment.
surmounter
1. Someone who overcomes and establishes ascendancy and control by force or persuasion.
2. Anyone who ascends, or climbs, to the top of an obstacle.
surname
1. The name used to identify the members of a family (as distinguished from each member's given name).
2. That name which identifies someone as belonging to a particular family and that he or she has in common with other members of that family.
3. A nickname or epithet added to a person's name.

Related "above, over, beyond the normal, excessive" word units: epi-; hyper-; ultra-, ult-.

Inter-related cross references, directly or indirectly, involving word units meaning "more, plentiful, fullness, excessive, over flowing": copi-; exuber-; hyper-; multi-; opulen-; ple-; pleio-; plethor-; poly-; total-; ultra-; undu-.