sphero-, spher-, -sphere-

(Greek: ball, round, around; globe, global; body of globular form; by extension, circular zone, circular area)

earth spinning.
atmospheric optics (s) (noun) (a plural form used as a singular)
1. A branch of meteorological physics or physical meteorology in which phenomena are seen occurring in the sky and are described and explained.
2. The study of the optical characteristics of the atmosphere or products of atmospheric processes.

The term is usually confined to visible and near visible radiation; however, unlike meteorological optics, it routinely includes temporal and spatial resolutions beyond those discernible with the naked eye.

Meteorological optics is that part of atmospheric optics concerned with the study of patterns observable with the naked eye.

This restriction is often relaxed slightly to allow the use of simple aids; such as, binoculars or a polarizing filter.

Topics included in meteorological optics are sky color, mirages, rainbows, halos, glories, coronas, and shines.

atmospheric physics (s) (noun) (a plural form used as a singular)
A branch of science dealing with the investigation and study of the physical phenomena of the atmosphere.
atmospheric pressure (s) (noun), atmospheric pressures (pl)
1. A unit of barometric pressure that is taken to be the standard pressure of the earth's atmosphere at sea level.
2. The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
3. The average atmospheric pressure at sea level is approximately 14.7 pounds per square inch.

With an increasing altitude, the pressure decreases; for example, at 30,000 feet, approximately the height of Mt. Everest, the air pressure is 4.3 pounds per square inch.

atmospheric pressure cure (s) (noun), atmospheric pressure cures (pl)
In petroleum engineering, the preparation of petroleum specimens for testing purposes by aging them at normal atmospheric pressure for a given period of time at particular temperature and humidity.
atmospheric radiation (s) (noun), atmospheric radiations (pl)
In geophysics, the radiation emitted by the atmosphere either upward into space or downward toward the earth, consisting mainly of long-wavelength terrestrial radiation plus the small amount of short-wavelength solar radiation absorbed in the atmosphere.
atmospheric radiation measurement (s), ARM; (noun), atmospheric radiation measurements (pl)
1. An instrument used for the detection or measurement of electromagnetic radiation.

The term is applied in particular to devices used to measure infrared radiation.

2. A receiver for detecting microwave thermal radiation and similar weak wide-band signals that resemble noise and are obscured by receiver noise.

The primary application of an atmospheric radiometer has been on board spacecraft measuring atmospheric and terrestrial radiation, and they are mostly used for meteorological or oceanographic remote-sensing.

Their secondary application is also meteorological, as zenith-pointing surface instruments that view the earth's atmosphere in a region above the stationary instrument.

By understanding the physical processes associated with energy emission at these wavelengths, scientists can calculate a variety of surface and atmospheric parameters from these measurements, including air temperature, sea surface temperature, salinity, soil moisture, sea ice, precipitation, the total amount of water vapor and the total amount of liquid water in the atmospheric column directly above or below the instrument.

atmospheric radio wave (s) (noun), atmospheric radio waves (pl)
A radio wave that is propagated by reflection through the atmosphere by reflections and refractions occurring in the atmosphere: "Atmospheric radio waves may include either the ionospheric wave or the tropospheric wave, or both of them."
atmospheric refraction (s) (noun), atmospheric refractions (pl)
1. The light passing through the earth's atmosphere, including both astronomical refraction and terrestrial refraction.
2. An apparent upward displacement of celestial objects relative to the horizon as light from them is bent toward the vertical by the decreasing density with altitude of the earth's atmosphere.

It is greatest for objects on the horizon and negligible at elevations higher than about 45 degrees.

3. The angular difference between the apparent zenith distance of a celestial body and its true zenith distance, produced by refraction effects as the light from the body penetrates the atmosphere.

Any refraction caused by the atmosphere's normal decrease in density with height.

Near surfaces on the earth, those within a few meters or so, are usually dominated by temperature gradients.

atmospheric scattering (s) (noun), atmospheric scatterings (pl)
A diffusion or alteration in the direction of the propagation, frequency, or polarization of electromagnetic radiation through contact with, or by interaction with, the atoms in the atmosphere.
atmospheric scintillation (s) (noun), atmospheric scintillations (pl)
The twinkling of stars (fluctuation of intensity) as seen through a planet's atmosphere: "Atmospheric scintillation is caused when a star's light is distorted by the Earth's atmosphere and atmospheric scintillation is greater for bright stars that are low on the horizon."
atmospheric sounding (s) (noun), atmospheric soundings (pl)
The measuring of atmospheric conditions above the effective range of surface weather observations.
atmospheric steam curing (s) (noun), atmospheric steam curings (pl)
A process for bringing freshly placed concrete, or cement products, to a required strength and quality by maintaining the humidity and temperature at specified levels for a given period of time: "Atmospheric steam curing is usually done at a maximum ambient temperature between 100 and 200°F or 40 and 95°C."
atmospheric structure (s) (noun), atmospheric structures (pl)
The constituting elements that characterize the atmosphere, including wind direction and velocity, altitude, air density, and the velocity of sound.
atmospheric suspensoids (pl) (noun) (usually no singular)
Any particles; such as, dust that are finely divided and suspended in the air.
atmospheric tide (s) (noun), atmospheric tides (pl)
1. A movement of atmospheric masses caused by the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon and by daily solar heating; amplitudes are minute except in the upper atmosphere.
2. The rhythmic, periodic oscillation of the earth's atmosphere because of the gravitational effects of the earth, sun, and moon and to the absorption of radiation by the atmosphere.
3. A tidal movement of the atmosphere resembling an ocean tide but caused principally by diurnal temperature changes.

Both the sun and moon produce atmospheric tides, and there also exist both gravitational tides (gravitational attraction of the sun or moon) and thermal tides (differential heating of the atmosphere by the sun).

Related ball, sphere-word units: glob-, glom-; hemoglobin-.