pung-, punc-, punct-

(Latin: pungere, punctum to strike, to hit, to punch, to pierce, to puncture, to point, to sting, to bite; a dot, a mark; a point, a sharp point, a pinpoint)

These vocabulary roots have developed a confusing family of words which, on the surface, do not seem to be related; however, the entries in this unit really are derived from the roots and the meanings that appear in the headings of this unit.

punctiform (s) (adjective), more punctiform, most punctiform
Shaped like a point or having a form like a point: The lighting that was used in the large hallway was provided by 5,000 punctorm halogen ceiling lamps.
punctilio (s) (noun), punctilios (pl)
Careful or minute details of conduct: Jane's grandfather was a bit old-fashioned and always opened the door for his wife when they went into a restaurant to dine, but today not many men observe this punctilio.
punctilious (adjective), more punctilious, more punctilious
1. Describing exactness regarding the appropriate details of social procedures and formalities: As the principal of the high school, Mr. Johnson had to be quite punctilious in conducting the staff meetings by not skipping over important issues and not interrupting a teacher whenever a question was asked.
2. A reference to being definite, strict, and precise: Joan was a very punctilious person when she was checking her bank account in order to make sure that she was not spending more than she earned!
Exact to an excessive degree.
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Very precise in behavior.
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punctiliously (adverb), more punctiliously, most punctiliously
Characteristic of how a person is very careful about behaving properly and doing things in a correct way: Janice is a newspaper reporter who punctiliously uses correct grammar in her writing assignments.
punctiliousness (s) (noun) (no pl)
Rigorous attention to minute details; meticulousness: Mrs. Timmons was known for her fastidiousness or punctiliousness when it came to ironing clothes, because there was never a wrinkle to be seen when she finished.
punctograph (s) (noun), punctographs (pl)
A device utilised in radiography in order to detect a strange object enclosed in a person's tissues: When Susan went to see her doctor, he suggested that a punctograph be used to locate the undefinable curiosity in her body.
punctography (s) (noun), punctographies (pl)
A system of writing for the visually impaired by using dots: Frank went to a special school for the blind and learned to read by the method of punctography, or Braille, which used raised points or dots representing numbers and letters.
punctual (adjective), more punctual, most punctual
Relating to something or a person that is prompt: Mrs. Timmons expected all of her students in the group to be punctual so that the lesson could begin on time.

The teacher and students were all happy to see that their bus to the museum was punctual and arrived on the dot!

The punctual payment of the bill was well appreciated.

punctuality (s) (noun), punctualities (pl)
1. The quality or habit of staying with an appointed time: Ruth always comes and leaves whenever she feels like it, so she is not burdened with punctualities and she doesn't expect others to be burdened with them either.
2. A strict observance in keeping engagements or appointments; promptness: The school required strict punctuality requiring all students to be in their classrooms on time.
punctually (adverb), more punctually, most punctually
Concerning how something or someone is prompt in fulfilling a duty, appointment, or obligation: Neal always paid his bills punctually in order not to receive another notice including an extra fee for being late in transferring the amount due!

The little corner store always opened punctually to allow the customers to come in.

punctuate (verb), punctuates; punctuated; punctuating
1. To use standard marks in writing, such as colons, commas, question marks, italics, and periods when composing sentences: There are times when the way a person punctuates his or her sentences can result in significant differences in their meanings, especially if they are not done properly.
2. To interrupt or to emphasize something every so often when speaking: Jasper would punctuate his remarks by making a point when he was talking and by using gestures.
punctuation (s) (noun), punctuations (pl)
1. The use of specific marks to clarify the meanings of written material by grouping words grammatically into sentences, clauses, and phrases: Punctuation does for writing and printing what pauses and changes of voice do for speech.
2. The process or an instance of adding certain marks, such as question marks, commas, semicolons, colons, question marks, exclamation marks, quotation marks, parentheses, brackets, apostrophes, and asterisks to groups of written words: The use of punctuations provides tools to indicate pauses, quotations, and to clarify meanings or inflections (changes in the basic forms of words, such as to show tenses, singulars and plurals, etc.).
punctuation mark (s) (noun), punctuation marks (pl)
A printed or written symbol which is neither a letter nor a number: Punctuation marks help make the meanings of compositions more understandable, such as periods, commas, question marks, colons, semicolons, exclamation marks, quotation marks, parentheses, brackets, hyphens, apostrophes, etc.

You can learn more about punctuation marks by clicking on this Index of Punctuation Marks and Punctuation Marks with Symbols, Explanations, and Examples.

punctuator (s) (noun), punctuators (pl)
A scholar who puts in the standard marks in writing; punctator: It was interesting to see how the punctuator marked with points or dots while writing in Hebrew.
puncture (s) (noun), punctures (pl)
1. A hole or cut made by a sharp implement: The two punctures on Jack's leg were made by the snake's fangs when it bit him, and he had to go to the hospital at once.

One of the thorns on the rose bush made a puncture in Mary's hand when she was trimming the plants.
2. A hole in the tire of a vehicle and causing it to deflate: James had to mend his flat tire, or the puncture on his bike, before he could continue the trip.
3. The action of pricking with a pointed device: The punctures the nurse made while vaccinating were very small and would disappeare in a few days.

Cross references of word families that are related directly, or indirectly, to: "sour, sharp": acerb-; aceto-; acid-; acies- (not "sour"); acuto- (not "sour"); oxy-.