archaeo-, archeo-, archae-, arche-, archa-, archi-, -arch

(Greek: original [first in time], beginning, first cause, origin, ancient, primitive, from the beginning; most basic)

archtype
A misspelling of archetype.
arcology
1. A concept in which the ideal city is a massive vertical structure, which preserves more of the natural environment, a concept combining architecture and ecology as envisioned by Paolo Soleri.
2. Etymology: arc(hitecture) plus (ec)ology.
bioarchaeology, bioarcheology
1. The use of a range of biological techniques on archaeological material in order to learn more about past populations.
2. A subdiscipline of biology that integrates the concepts of human biology with those of anthropological archaeology.

In bioarchaeology, one might isolate and amplify DNA from very old bones; such as, from the frozen body of the 9,000-year-old "Ice Man" who was found in the Italian Alps.

bioarcheology
A discipline in which the concepts of human biology are integrated with anthropological archeology.
classical archaeology, classical archeology
A field within historical archaeology specializing in the study of Old World Greek and Roman civilizations, their antecedents, and their contemporaries.
dendroarcheology
The dating of events or time intervals in past periods based on the variation in patterns of growth rings of trees and old wood.
ethnoarchaeology, ethnoarcheology
1. The branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures.
2. The use of archaeological/archeological techniques and data to study living cultures; especially, current or recent aboriginal groups; such as, the Inuit or Bushmen.

The study of contemporary cultures with a view to understanding the behavioral relationships which underlie the production of material culture. It is the use of archaeological techniques and data to study these living cultures and the use of ethnographic data to inform the examination of the archaeological record.

It is a relatively new branch of the discipline, followed particularly in America. It seeks to compare the patterns recognized in the material culture from archaeological contexts with patterns yielded through the study of living societies.

The ethnoarchaeologist is particularly concerned with the manufacture, distribution, and use of artifacts, the remains of various processes that might be expected to survive, and the interpretation of archaeological material in the light of the ethnographic information.

Less materially oriented questions; such as, technological development, subsistence strategies, and social evolution are also compared in archaeology and ethnology under the general heading of ethnographic analogy.

ethnozooarchaeological research
A study of traditional treatment of animal diseases which includes treatment of human medical conditions.

The focus is primarily on the use of botanicals readily available, how they are identified, collected, processed, and under what conditions they are used to treat ailments.

exoarchaeology, exoarcheology
Another term for xenoarchaeology, xenoarcheology.
geoarchaeology
The techniques of geology applied to archaeological issues; such as, dating methodology, mineral identification, soil and stratification analysis; the investigation of the relationship between archaeological and geological processes.

It is an ecological approach to archaeology with the goal of understanding the physical context of archaeological remains and the emphasis on the interrelationships among cultural and land systems.

industrial archaeology (noun) (not countable)
1. The study of machines, methods, buildings, and locations which are characteristic of the early history of the Industrial Revolution or used by various industries in the past.
2. The archaeological study of the period and sites of the Industrial Revolution and later.

It involves the discovery, recording, and study of the material remains of past industrial activities, covering ways of making, transporting, and distributing products.

protoarchaeology, protoarcheology
The study of prehistoric human artifacts and human fossils.
pseudo-archaeology, pseudoarchaeology; pseudoarcheology
The use of selective archeological evidence, real or imagined, to promulgate nonscientific, fictional accounts of the past.
pubarche
Onset or the beginning of puberty, particularly as manifested by the appearance of pubic hair.
public archaeology, public archeology
A branch of archeeology dealing with the impact of construction and development on archaeological sites and laws enacted to lessen the threat.

In the U.S., it has helped to create the industries of salvage archaeology or cultural resource management (in the U.K., it is called "rescue archaeology").

Related "time" units: aevum, evum; Calendars; chrono-; horo-; pre-; Quotes: Time; tempo-.