-ology, -logy, -ologist, -logist
(Greek: a suffix meaning: to talk, to speak; a branch of knowledge; any science or academic field that ends in -ology which is a variant of -logy; a person who speaks in a certain manner; someone who deals with certain topics or subjects)
The word -ology is a back-formation from the names of certain disciplines. The -logy element basically means "the study of ____". Such words are formed from Greek or Latin roots with the terminal -logy derived from the Greek suffix -λογια (-logia), speaking, from λεγειν (legein), "to speak".
The suffix -ology is considered to be misleading sometimes as when the "o" is actually part of the word stem that receives the -logy ending; such as, bio + logy.
Through the years -ology and -logy have come to mean, "study of" or "science of" and either of these suffixes often utilize the form of -ologist, "one who (whatever the preceding element refers to)".
The examples shown in this unit represent just a small fraction of the many words that exist in various dictionaries.
2. The use of archaeological/archeological techniques and data to study living cultures, especially current or recent aboriginal groups, such as the Inuit or Bushmen.
Ethnoarchaeology is the study of contemporary cultures with a view to understanding the behavioral relationships which underlie the production of material culture. It uses archaeological techniques and data to study these living cultures and uses ethnographic data to inform the examination of the archaeological record.
Ethnoarchaeology is a relatively new branch of the discipline, followed particularly in America. It seeks to compare the patterns recognized in the material culture from archaeological contexts with patterns yielded through the study of living societies.
The ethnoarchaeologist is particularly concerned with the manufacture, distribution, and use of artifacts, the remains of various processes that might be expected to survive, and the interpretation of archaeological material in the light of the ethnographic information.
Less materially oriented questions. such as technological development, subsistence strategies, and social evolution are also compared in archaeology and ethnolo, under the general heading of ethnographic analogy.
2. The study of ethnic groups as they are affected by the biological factors in their environment.
3. The study of the way various cultural groups make use of or interact with the animals and plants of their environment.
An ethnobiologist who is working to preserve the skills of native medicine men (shamans) in South America.
Ethnogerontology addresses the causes, processes, heritage, and consequences specific to these groups.
2. The study of the human races, their origins, relationships, and characteristics; also called ethnics.
3. The anthropological study of ethnic groups (peoples and societies).
4. The comparison of specific features of different cultures in an attempt to establish similarities and disparities between them.
2. A style of sociological analysis which seeks to expose and analyze the methods by which participants in a given social situation construct their commonsense knowledge of the world.
It is said that this is the study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi (also known as, "fungi lore"), and can be considered a subfield of ethnobotany or ethnobiology.
Although in theory the term includes fungi used for such purposes; such as, material that is easily combustible and can be used for lighting a fire, medicine, and food, including yeast; it is often used within the context of the study of psychoactive mushrooms.
2. The study and use of plants, fungi, animals, microorganisms, and minerals; as well as, their biological and pharmacological applications.
3. A combination of the approaches of medical anthropology, phytotherapy, and pharmaceutical science, this discipline examines medicinal plants in indigenous cultures, their bioactive compounds, and the sustainable development and the production of nature-derived therapeutics.
Ethnopharmacologists are particularly concerned with local people’s rights to further use and develop their autochthonous (place of origin; indigenous, native) resources.
Today’s ethnopharmacological research embraces multidisciplinary efforts in the:
- documentation of indigenous medical knowledge.
- scientific study of indigenous medicines in order to contribute in the long-run to improved health care in the regions of the studies.
- search for pharmacologically unique principles from existing indigenous remedies.
- combinations of such diverse fields as anthropology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaceutical biology, natural product chemistry, toxicology, clinical research, and plant physiology.