-ology, -logy, -ologist, -logist

(Greek: a suffix meaning: to talk, to speak; a branch of knowledge; any science or academic field that ends in -ology which is a variant of -logy; a person who speaks in a certain manner; someone who deals with certain topics or subjects)

The word -ology is a back-formation from the names of certain disciplines. The -logy element basically means "the study of ____". Such words are formed from Greek or Latin roots with the terminal -logy derived from the Greek suffix -λογια (-logia), speaking, from λεγειν (legein), "to speak".

The suffix -ology is considered to be misleading sometimes as when the "o" is actually part of the word stem that receives the -logy ending; such as, bio + logy.

Through the years -ology and -logy have come to mean, "study of" or "science of" and either of these suffixes often utilize the form of -ologist, "one who (whatever the preceding element refers to)".

The examples shown in this unit represent just a small fraction of the many words that exist in various dictionaries.

1. The branch of astrophysics that studies the origin, evolution, and structure of the universe.
2. The metaphysical study of the origin and nature of the universe.
3. Etymology: derived from the Greek kosmos, "order, harmony, the world" plus logos, "word, discourse".

In the broadest sense of the word, cosmology is that branch of learning which studies the universe as an ordered system.

Cosmology is confined to a description of the salient features of the observed universe, in terms of such categories as space, time, and matter; leaving questions concerning the origin, inner nature, and purpose of the universe to the related branches of cosmogony (branch of astrophysics that studies the origin and evolution and structure of the universe), ontology (metaphysical, or the philosophical study of the nature of being and existence), and teleology (study of ultimate causes in nature).

Someone who scientifically studies the shapes, sizes, and other characteristics of human skulls.
1. The science that deals with the size, shape, and other characteristics of human skulls.
2. The branch of anatomy and medicine that studies the structure and characteristics of skulls.
3. The study of variations in size, shape, and proportions of the skull (cranium).

Also known as phrenology, which was a pseudoscience of the 18th and 19th centuries based on the belief that the character of people could be learned by looking with care at the shape of their heads and noting each and every bump and depression on their skulls.

The individual mental faculties were believed to be contained in neat compartments in the cerebral cortex and the size of these faculties were supposed to be reflected by the configuration of the skull.

criminal anthropology (s) (noun) (usually no plural)
The application of the study of humanity regarding the possible identifications of the physical and psychological characteristics and reasons for illegal activities: The federal agents were focused on using criminal anthropology in order to find out why some cities have so many criminal acts in certain districts or neighborhoods.
A specialist in the effects of low temperatures on biological systems.
1. The study of the effects of low temperatures on living organisms or biological systems; especially, warm-blooded animals.
2. The study of life and its constituents below its normal living temperature, including cryogenic temperatures (below -80 degrees Centigrade).
In hydrology, the study of the nature, structure, and development of underground ice, especially in permafrost regions.
1. In hydrology, the scientific study of snow and ice.
2. In mechanical engineering, studying and researching refrigeration at low temperatures ranging down to absolute zero.
In geology, a branch of geomorphology that involves the study of the processes and features of cold climates.
A branch of geology that involves the study of frost action and the occurrence of frozen ground.
cryptography (s) (noun), cryptographies (pl)
1. The science or study of hidden writing; especially, unknown codes and ciphers: The objective of cryptography is to prevent information from falling into the hands of those who would use it against us.
2. The procedures and methods of making and using secret languages: If a new word for cryptography were to be invented today, it would probably be "secret communications."
A man is trying to interpret a cryptographic message.
A spy is deciphering a coded message.

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A secrecy of cryptologists.
Cross references of word families related directly, or indirectly, to: "talk, speak, speech; words, language; tongue, etc.": cit-; clam-; dic-; fa-; -farious; glosso-; glotto-; lalo-; linguo-; locu-; logo-; loqu-; mythico-; ora-; -phasia; -phemia; phon-; phras-; Quotes: Language,Part 1; Quotes: Language, Part 2; Quotes: Language, Part 3; serm-; tongue; voc-.