-ology, -logy, -ologist, -logist
(Greek: a suffix meaning: to talk, to speak; a branch of knowledge; any science or academic field that ends in -ology which is a variant of -logy; a person who speaks in a certain manner; someone who deals with certain topics or subjects)
The word -ology is a back-formation from the names of certain disciplines. The -logy element basically means "the study of ____". Such words are formed from Greek or Latin roots with the terminal -logy derived from the Greek suffix -λογια (-logia), speaking, from λεγειν (legein), "to speak".
The suffix -ology is considered to be misleading sometimes as when the "o" is actually part of the word stem that receives the -logy ending; such as, bio + logy.
Through the years -ology and -logy have come to mean, "study of" or "science of" and either of these suffixes often utilize the form of -ologist, "one who (whatever the preceding element refers to)".
The examples shown in this unit represent just a small fraction of the many words that exist in various dictionaries.
2. The science of physical life; the division of physical science that deals with organized beings or animals and plants, their morphology, physiology, origin, and distribution.
3. The study of living organisms, including their structure, function, evolution, interrelationships, behavior, and distribution.
4. The study of human life and living.
5. The study of the properties and history of living organisms and of their interactions with the non-living world.
Using physics as a model, biologists have attempted to find universal processes and properties of all organisms that can be applied to all forms, despite the apparent diversity of life.
Living organisms are affected by and affect the non-living world strongly. The study of the history of the earth and its atmosphere is inseparable from the study of biology.
2. That branch of ecology that deals with the effects on living organisms of the extra-organic aspects of the physical environment; such as, temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, rate of air flow, and air ionization.
It involves not only natural atmosphere but also artificially created atmospheres; such as, those to be found in buildings and shelters, and in closed ecological systems; for example, satellites and submarines.
2. A branch of nanotechnology that either uses biological starting materials, biological design principles, or has biological applications.
3. The practical application of biological knowledge and techniques for industrial purposes; for example, fermentation.
4. The use of contemporary biological techniques to produce new substances or to perform new functions; for example, recombinant DNA technology.
2. The study of the deformation and flow of matter in living systems and in materials directly derived from them.
2. The study of the fauna of caves.
3. The study of organisms that live in caves.
2. The branch of technology concerned with modern forms of industrial production utilizing living organisms, especially micro-organisms, and their biological processes; including such ancient endeavors as the use of yeast in preparing bread for baking, and such modern concepts as genetic engineering.
3. The application of technology to biological processes for industrial, agricultural, and medical purposes.
Examples include bacteria; such as, Penicillium and Streptomycin are used to produce antibiotics and fermenting yeasts produce alcohol in beer and wine manufacture.
Genetic engineering now enables the large-scale production of hormones, blood serum proteins, and other medically important products.
Genetic modification of farm crops offers improved protection against pests, or products with novel characteristics; such as, new flavors, colors, or extended storage properties.
2. The branch of toxicology concerned with biotoxins (poisons produced by and derived from the cells or secretions of a living organism, either plant or animal).