lapar-, laparo- +

(Greek: the soft part of the body between the ribs and the hip, flank, loin; denotes the flank or loins and the abdominal wall or a part of the abdomen)

Sometimes this element is used loosely (even incorrectly) as a reference to the abdomen in general.

Removal of a kidney by an incision in the loin.
laparorrhaphy, laparorrhagia
Celiorrhaphy; the repair or strengthening of the abdominal wall by means of sutures.
laparosalpingectomy (s) (noun), laparosalpingectomies (pl)
1. Abdominal salpingectomy; removal of a uterine tube through an abdominal incision.
2. An opening into an oviduct made through an abdominal incision.
laparosalpingo-oophorectomy (s) (noun), laparosalpingo-oophorectomies (pl)
Removal of the fallopian tube and ovary through an abdominal incision.
laparosalpingotomy (s) (noun), laparosalpingotomies (pl)
Abdominal salpingotomy.
Any instrument used in examining the abdomen; now specifically one in the form of a tube for insertion into the peritoneal cavity in laparoscopy, having a source of light at the inserted end and an optical system for forming at the other end an image of the illuminated region; an endoscope for examining the peritoneal cavity.

The laparoscope is a type of endoscope, the earliest of which, dating from 150 years ago, was a crude tube down which lamplight was reflected. With the advent of fiberoptics in the 1960's and of high-intensity, low-heat, halogen bulbs in the 1970's, endoscopy became clinically practical.

Typically, in laparoscopy, the abdomen is first inflated with carbon dioxide, and the laparoscope passed through a small incision in the abdominal wall. The device is frequently used to view the female reproductive organs, in particular where endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease is thought to be present, or infertility is suspected because of obstruction of the fallopian tubes by scarring (adhesions).

Fitted with grasping and cutting tools, the laparoscope can perform minor surgery, take tissue samples for biopsy, and remove eggs from the ovaries (as in gamete intrafallopian transfer). Often done on an ambulatory basis, laparoscopy is among the new techniques that have revolutionized modern surgery.

Stedman's Medical Dictionary
(Baltimore, Maryland: Williams & Wilkins, 1984).
1. Visual examination of the interior of the peritoneal cavity with a laparoscope inserted into it through the abdominal wall or the vagina.
2. An examination of body cavities during certain types of surgery; for example, surgeries to remove fibroid tumors, or gall bladders, are often removed through the navel rather than cutting into the body.
Laparotomy with excision of the spleen.
Laparotomy to gain access to the spleen, usually for the purpose of draining a cyst or abscess of the spleen.
Munchausen syndrome in which the patient desires abdominal surgery.
An instrument (knife, etc.) for performing laparotomy.
1. Cutting through the abdominal walls into the cavity of the abdomen; incision into the loin.
2. Surgical incision through the flank; less correctly, but more generally, abdominal section at any point to gain access to the peritoneal cavity.
A low cervical cesarean section.
Incision into the cecum through the flank.
Abdominal hysterotomy; incision of the uterus through a surgical opening in the abdomen.