junct-, jug-, join-
(Latin: link, unite, yoke; bring together, meet, merge, engage in; combine)
2. To add something at the end of what has already been written or said.
3. To place in sequence or juxtaposition to something else.
2. To bring under control; to conquer; to defeat: Ron is determined to subjugate his temper and to develop a more tolerant attitude towards those who disagree with him.
3. To make subservient or to enslave: It does not make for a healthy relationship when someone attempts to subjugate another person.
4. To put down by force or intimidation: The king subjugated his enemies and was able to assert his power in all parts of the empire.
5. Etymology: from Late Latin subjugationem and subjugatio; from Latin subjugatus and subjugare, "to subdue"; literally, "to bring under a yoke", from sub-, "under" + jugum, "yoke", related to iungere, "to join".
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2. That which is brought under domination or control; particularly, by military conquest.
2. In grammar, denoting or pertaining to the mood of a verb that marks a statement or question; such as, hypothetical, doubtful, or grammatically subordinate; for example, "were" in "if I were you".
3. Etymology: "a gramatical mood of a verb to denote an action or state as conceived and not as a fact"; from Late Latin subjunctivus, "serving to join, connecting", from the stem of subjungere, "to append, to add at the end, to place under"; from sub-, "under" + jungere, "to join".
The form were is used in clauses introduced by if, as if, as though, or supposing, as in:
- If you were to go, you might not be allowed to return.
- It's not as though she were a beauty queen.
- Suppose I were to meet you in the restaurant after the show.
The subjunctive also occurs in fixed expressions; such as, as it were, be that as it may, come what may, and far be it from me.
2. A pleading by the plaintiff in reply to the defendant's rejoinder.
An area where two bones are attached for the purpose of moving body parts.
An articulation, or joint, is usually formed of fibrous connective tissue and cartilage and the joints are grouped according to their motion:
- A ball and socket joint.
- A hinge joint.
- A condyloid joint (a joint that permits all forms of angular movement except axial rotation).
- A pivot joint.
- A gliding joint.
- A saddle joint
- Gliding, one bony surface that glides on another without angular or rotatory movement.
- Angular, occurs only between long bones, increasing or decreasing the angle between the bones.
- Circumduction, occurs in joints composed of the head of a bone and an articular cavity, the long bone describing a series of circles, the whole forming a cone.
- Rotation, a bone that moves around a central axis without moving from this axis.
Joints can move in four and only four ways:
These joints include "ball and socket joints"; such as, the hips and shoulders that permit a wide range of movements in several directions; and the "hinge joints"; such as, the knees and elbows which allow movements primarily in one direction or plane.
Synovial joints consist of several components which make complex movements possible
- Synovial capsule, the outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue which resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint.
- Synovial membrane which lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid.
- Synovial fluid, which flows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant to make the smooth movement of the joint possible.
- Ligaments, bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone, or joining a bone to cartilage and complex hinge joints; such as, the knee, are made up of a series of ligaments which permit movements in different directions.
- Bursa (s), bursae (pl), a fibrous sac which acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction; such as, in the shoulder, elbow, and knee joints; where a tendon passes over a bone.
Pain in the temporomandibular joint can be caused by trauma; such as, a blow to the face, inflammatory or degenerative arthritis; or poor dental work or structural defects that push the mandible back toward the ears whenever the patient chews or swallows. Grinding or clenching the teeth is a frequent cause.
Sometimes muscles around the temporomandibular joint that are used for chewing can go into spasms, causing head and neck pain, as well as difficulty opening the mouth normally.
The kind of medical treatment depends on the cause and severity of the problem and can range from use of a mouth guard or medication to prevent night time tooth grinding to surgery.
The temporomandibular joint is one of the most frequently used joints in the entire body, moving whenever a person eats, drinks, or talks.
2. A wooden bar or frame used to join draft animals at the heads or necks so they could pull a plow or a heavy load together.
3. A bind or tie that keeps people together, positively or negatively; such as the yoke of love or the yoke of marriage.
4. If two or more people or things are yoked together, they are forced to be closely linked or joined with each other, or the yoking of an unhappy situation: "He was yoked to his job because he couldn't find employment in any other occupation."
5. Something which causes people to be treated cruelly and unfairly; especially, by taking away their freedom: "The people of this country have struggled to free themselves from the yoke of foreign rule and the yoke of tyranny."
6. An oppressive force or influence; a crushing burden or weight; such as, under the yoke of heavy taxes to support a government's inefficient economic policies.
7. In medicine, a tissue connecting two structures.
8. Etymology: "yoke" was developed from Old English geoc, "yoke"; from Latin jugum, "joining, yoke"; related to jungere, "to join".
The etymological idea underlying yoke is of "joining"; including the "joining of two animals together", or the joining of people; as, "they were joined together by the yoke of friendship" or "they were yoked together in marriage".
The zygoma also refers to the zygomatic bone, the zygomatic arch, and the malar bone.