-ism, -ismus

(Greek, ismos; Latin, ismus: a suffix: belief in, practice of, condition of, process, characteristic behavior or manner, abnormal state, distinctive feature or trait)

The division of labor within a society on the basis of morphological castes (caste polyethism) or age (age polyethism).
1. The assumption of various distinct forms by a single organism or species.
2. In cytomorphology, variation in the size and shape of cells or nuclei.
3. In chemistry, crystallization of a compound in at least two distinct forms.
4. In biology, the occurrence of different forms, stages, or types in individual organisms or in organisms of the same species, independent of gender variations.
5. In zoology, the characteristics of assuming or passing through several forms, as an animal exhibiting seasonal changes in coloration.
6. In mineralogy, the occurrence in a mineral of two or more distinct crystal forms of identical chemical composition.
polytheism (s) (noun), polytheisms (pl)
Worshiping of or believing in several deities.
1. Music which has been adapted to the understanding and to the taste of the majority of people.
2. Popularism (Italian: popolarismo) is a political doctrine conceived by Don Luigi Sturzo as a middle way between Socialism and Liberalism and opposed to Fascism because of its stress on Democracy.

Popularism is said to represent a more politically correct alternative term since in Latin countries of Europe and the Americas populism is strongly derogatory and typically equated to dictatorial policies or fascist regimes.

1. Any of various, often antiestablishment or anti-intellectual political movements or philosophies that offer unorthodox solutions or policies and appeal to the common person rather than according with traditional party or partisan ideologies.
2. Grass-roots democracy; working-class activism; egalitarianism.
3. Representation or extolling of the common person, the working class, the underdog.
4, The political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggles with the privileged elite.
positivism (s) (noun), positivisms (pl)
1. A doctrine or philosophical system that maintains that sense perceptions are the essential foundations of human erudition and precise thinking: Positivism is a way of thinking that consists of experimental investigation, scientific facts, and physical observations that are considered to be the primary sources of real knowledge.

Positivism declares that the only real knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such cognizance can only come from positive affirmation of theories with a strict scientific method; in other words, a system of philosophy that accepts only things that can be seen or physically proven.

The modern usage of positivism indicates a lack of confidence in any speculation that is not controlled by factual data and sense experiences.

2. In jurisprudence or the system of laws, the view that any legal system is best studied by concentrating on the law of a specific system: The positivism of law includes the standards of conduct that are dictated by validly enacted laws, rather than by principles of natural law or by the nature of human beings.
1. A teaching of the Christian religion that Christ will return after a long period of time when Christianity has brought about a time of prosperity and peace; in other words, Jesus will return after the millennium.
2. A religious belief that the millennium is an era (not necessarily a literal thousand years) during which Christ will reign over the earth, not from a literal and earthly throne, but through the gradual increase of the Gospel and its power to change lives.

After this gradual Christianization of the world, Christ will return and immediately usher the church into their eternal state after judging the wicked.

This is called postmillennialism because the view is that Christ will return after the millennium.

1. In philosophy, the doctrine that practical consequences are the criteria of knowledge and meaning and value.
2. The attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth.
3. A straightforward practical way of thinking about things or dealing with problems, concerned with results rather than with theories and principles.
4. A practical, matter-of-fact way of approaching or assessing situations or of solving problems.
5. A theory concerning the meaning of words originated by the American philosopher C. S. Pierce.

The term and basic idea was borrowed and developed by William James and John Dewey (1859-1952) to create a thoroughly Modern American Philosophy based on a theory which identified truth with the notion that whatever works is true.

1. A religious teaching that Christ will return to the earth and, afterward, rule for one thousand years; or Jesus will return before the millennium.
2. The belief that Jesus Christ will return for the Last Judgment just before the one-thousand-year reign of peace.

Premillennialists place the return of Christ just before the millennium and just after a time of great apostasy and tribulation.

After the millennium, Satan will be loosed and Gog and Magog will rise against the kingdom of God; this will be immediately followed by the final judgment.

While similar in some respects to the dispensational variety; in that they hold to Christ's return being before the establishment of a thousand-year earthly reign), historical premillennialism differs in significant ways (notably in their method of interpreting Scripture.

The historical premillennialist's viewpoint interprets some prophecy in Scripture as having literal fulfillment while others demand a semi-symbolic fulfillment.

primary narcissism (s) (noun), primary narcissisms (pl)
A psychoanalytical or medical term referring to the initial, or early, beliefs by an individual that his or her self-centeredness, conceit, and ego are more important than those of others: It was a difficult diagnosis to accept, but Hans was able to understand the notion of primary narcissism as it related to his personality and he vowed to try to change his attitudes about himself and other people.
procrusteanism (noun)
An arbitrary mold or pattern that somethingĀ or someone is forced into: "A person once wrote about government procrusteanism which compels identical treatment for everyone in every situation, regardless of each person's individuality."

"Procrusteanism is a failure to recognize the natural differences that exist among people."

"The term procrusteanism comes from Procrustes, a fabled robber of ancient Attica, Greece, who forced travelers to lie on a bed, then lopped off their limbs to make them equal to the length of the bed. If they were too short, he stretched them so they would meet the bed's format."

professionalism (s) (noun), professionalisms (pl)
1. The skill, competence, or character expected of a member of a highly trained profession.
2. The use of professionals instead of amateurs.
prognathism, prognathus
An abnormal facial configuration in which one or both jaws project forward.

It may be real or imaginary, depending on anatomic or physical and developmental factors.

Real prognathism may exist when both the mandible (lower jawbone) and the maxilla (upper jawbone) increase in length or when the maxillary length is normal and the mandibular length increases excessively.

Imaginary prognathism may exist when the maxilla is underdeveloped and the mandibular length is normal