-ics, -tics [-ac after i]
(Greek: a suffix that forms nouns and is usually used to form names of arts and sciences)
2. The study of genomes recovered from environmental samples as opposed to getting them from clonal cultures.
The technique is to clone DNA in large fragments directly from the microorganism's environment; (soil or oceans) into a culturable host and conduct a sequence-based and functional genomic analysis on it.
The hope of this new strategy is isolate new chemical signals, new secondary metabolites that might have utility to humans, and the reconstruction of an entire genome of an uncultured organism.
This relatively new field of genetic research allows the genomic study of organisms that are not easily cultured in a laboratory.
In 1998, Jo Handelsman, a plant pathologist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and four colleagues coined the term metagenomics, literally, "beyond genomics".
Metagenomics has also been described as "the comprehensive study of nucleotide sequence, structure, regulation, and function".
Scientists can study the smallest component of an environmental system by extracting DNA from organisms in the system and inserting it into a model organism. The model organism then expresses this DNA where it can be studied using standard laboratory techniques.
2. The branch of linguistics that deals with the relation between a language and other aspects of a particular culture.
Some scientific researchers believe that there is a need to know more and more about the original form of metal elements and their interactions with other chemical or biochemical entities.
For example, arsenic is regarded as toxic, but this chemical is primarily associated with inorganic forms; such as, arsenite while arsenobetaine is an organic chemical form of arsenic, which exists normally in seafood and is considered to be non-toxic.
This is why it is necessary to study all of the elements, regardless of metals, nonmetals, or metalloids, in biological systems to determine their influences on animals and humans.
2. The theoretical or first principles of a particular discipline: the metaphysics of law.
3. A priori speculation upon questions that are unanswerable to scientific observation, analysis, or experiment .
2. The combination of minuscule electrical and mechanical components in a single device less than one millimeter across; such as, a valve or a motor.
Although micromechanical production processes and applications are still in the developmental process, efforts have been started to develop machines; called micromachines or micromechanisms, which will be 1,000 times smaller.
Mnemonics: Spelling "Seed" Words (-cede, -ceed, and -sede).
Research in this area is done with the purpose of surpassing the power and the capacity of the silicon-based technology used in current computers.