glyco-, glyc- +
(Greek: sweet, sugar)
2. Acting upon or influenced by the concentration of sugar.
2. The physiological excretion of large amounts of sugar in the urine following an excessive carbohydrate intake.
3. The excretion of normal amounts of sugar in urine.
2. An elevated level specifically of the sugar glucose in the blood.
Hyperglycemia is often found in diabetes mellitus. It occurs when the body does not have enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it has to turn glucose into energy.
2. Characterized by, or causing, hyperglycemia (excess of glucose in the blood).
Glucose is a monosaccharide (a simple sugar; a carbohydrate that cannot be broken down to simpler substances by hydrolysis) which is found in many foods; especially, fruit, and is the end product of carbohydrate digestion in the body.
Soon after digestion, other monosaccharides; such as, fructose and galactose get converted into glucose, so that it is the only monosaccharide present in significant amounts in body fluids.
The metabolism of glucose is the chief source of energy for the cells of the body, and the rate of such metabolism is controlled by insulin. In pharmaceutical preparations, glucose is called dextrose.
2. An excessive degree of sugar in the cerebrospinal fluid.
Hypoglycemia may be tolerated by normally healthy people for short periods of time, but if the blood sugar level remains very low for a long time, there are often effects on the brain, with development of mental confusion, hallucinations, convulsions, and eventually deep coma as the nervous system is deprived of the glucose needed for its normal metabolic activities.
Additional conditions can cause hypoglycemia; such as, overproduction of insulin by the pancreas, an overdose of therapeutic insulin, certain types of abdominal or pancreatic tumors, and the deficient production of adrenocortical hormones, especially the glucocorticoids (a steroid hormone that is produced by the adrenal cortex of animals which affects the functioning of the gonads and has an anti-inflammatory activity).
Such drugs may stimulate the synthesis of insulin by the pancreatic beta cells, inhibit glucose production, facilitate the transportation of glucose to muscle cells, and sometimes increase the number of receptor sites where insulin can be bound and can imitate the process of breaking down glucose.