geo-, ge- +

(Greek: earth, land, soil; world; Gaia (Greek), Gaea (Latin), "earth goddess")

geographical determination, geographical determinism
A theory stating that human culture and activity can be explained by the geographical circumstances or conditions in which they are found.

For example, there is the idea that a desert environment will produce a nomadic culture because desert terrain makes it easier for movement and the lack of consistent rainfall stimulates such movement.

geographical distribution of resources, geographic distribution of resources
The physical character and distribution of natural resources on the face of the earth.

The fundamental differences between land and ocean, latitudinal differences in insulation, spatial variations in receipts of precipitation, and patterns of geological composition, and deformation of the earth's crust together provide the basis for distinguishing definite geographical patterns of resource availability through out the world.

geographical information system, geographic information system, GIS
1. A computer system specialized for the storage, manipulation, and presentation of geographical information; such as, topography, political subdivisions, geology, vegetation, flood plains, etc.
2. A computerized system which relates and displays data collected from a geographic entity in the form of a map.

The ability of a geographical information system to overlay existing data with new information and display it in color on a computer screen and is used primarily to conduct analyses and make decisions related to geology, ecology, land use, demographics, transportation, and other domains, most of which relate to the human use of the physical environment.

Through this process of geocoding, the geographic data from a database is converted into images in the form of maps.

geographical mile
1. A British unit of length equivalent to 1,853.18 meters (6,082 feet) , which was replaced by the international nautical mile in 1970.
2. A former name for nautical mile (sea mile) or a unit of length used in sea and air navigation, based on the length of one minute of arc of a great circle; especially, an international and U.S. unit equal to 1,852 meters (about 6,076 feet).
3. A unit of length in the US Customary System, used in air and sea navigation and equal to 6,076 feet or 2,025 yards (1,852 meters).
geographical plot
A plot (measured area of land) in which positions are displayed in terms of actual geographical position; as opposed, for example, to a relative plot; the successive positions of a craft relative to a reference point, which is usually in motion.
geographical position
1. That point on the earth or a location on the surface of a planet at which a given celestial body is in the zenith at a specified time.
2. Any position on the surface of the earth defined by means of its geographical coordinates, either astronomical or geodetic; or expressed in terms of latitude and longitude, either geodetic or astronomical.
geographical projection
A representation of the globe constructed on a plane with lines representative of and corresponding to the meridians and parallels of the curved surface of the earth.
geographical range, geographic range
1. A spatial distribution of a species (group of interbreeding organisms that do not ordinarily breed with members of other groups) in which the geographic ranges of species often fluctuate over time.
2. The total area occupied by a population.
3. The extreme distance at which an object or light can be seen when limited only by the curvature of the earth and the heights of the object and the observer.
geographical search, geographic search
1. A procedure in which search areas are assigned by geographical areas or sectors.
2. An orderly arrangement of lines in which an area is defined in relation to one or more geographical points on the earth.
geographical unit, geographic unit
An area based primarily on hydrologic boundaries adjusted as needed using a specified set of criteria to accommodate the inventory and analysis of natural resources.

A geographic unit can vary in scale depending on the criteria used, the level of inventory and analysis needed, and the problems perceived. In all cases, geographic units incorporate both groundwater and surface water.

Characterized by the scientific study of the surface of the earth including the topographical features of a region, or regions, of the earth.
1. The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, comprising topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc. and man's responses to them.
2. The physical features of a region, area, or place; usually, the surface features.
3. The science that deals with the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humans.
4. The scientific study of the earth, including its composition, structure, physical properties, and history.

Geology is commonly divided into subdisciplines concerned with the chemical makeup of the earth, including:

  • The study of minerals (mineralogy) and rocks (petrology).
  • The structure of the earth (structural geology) and volcanic phenomena (volcanology).
  • Landforms and the processes that produce them (geomorphology and glaciology).
  • The geologic history, including the study of fossils (paleontology).
  • The development of sedimentary strata (stratigraphy).
  • The evolution of planetary bodies and their satellites (astrogeology).
  • Economic geology and its various branches; such as, mining geology and petroleum geology.
  • Also, some major fields closely allied to geology are geodesy, geophysics, and geochemistry.
geography of energy
The study of energy development, transportation, markets, or the use of patterns from a geographical perspective.
1. The scientific study of subsurface water; especially, the study of the geologic settings of underground water.
2. The branch of geology that studies the movement of subsurface water through rocks and the effect of moving water on rocks, including their erosion.

The term geohydrology is often used interchangeably with hydrogeology. Some make the minor distinction between hydrologists or engineers who are applying themselves to geology (geohydrology), and geologists applying themselves to hydrology (hydrogeology).

1. A figure resembling the shape of the earth.
2. A slightly flattened sphere which is in the shape of the earth, used in calculating the precise measurements of points on the earth's surface.
3. A hypothetical surface of the earth which would exist if a cross section were taken at sea level or the figure of the earth considered as a sea-level surface extended continuously over the entire earth's surface.
4. The theoretical surface that a planet-wide ocean would take if there were no tides or currents.

Available for further enlightenment: the Earth, Words from the Myths.

Cross references of word families related directly, or indirectly, to: "land, ground, fields, soil, dirt, mud, clay, earth (world)": agra-; agrest-; agri-; agro-; argill-; choro-; chthon-; epeiro-; glob-; lut-; myso-; pedo-; pel-; rhyp-; soil-; sord-; terr-.