frag-, frang-, fract-, fring-

(Latin: break, breaking; broken; cracked)

frangibility (s) (noun), frangibilities (pl)
The state or quality of being brittle or easily broken.
frangible (adjective)
1. Capable of being broken; breakable.
2. Able to be broken into fragments; brittle or fragile.
3. Brittle or designed to be easily broken: "Cookies or crackers are examples of frangible materials (break up into fragments) while fresh bread, when pressed, deforms elastically so it is not frangible.

frangibleness (noun)
A quality of being easily damaged, broken, or destroyed.
frangile (adjective)
A reference to anything which can be broken.
hydro fracking (noun), hydraulic fracturing (noun)
The wings of a fracture extend away from the wellbore (any hole drilled for the purpose of exploration or extraction of natural resources) in opposite directions depending on the natural stresses within the shale formation: "Hydro fracking is a process used to release petroleum, natural gas, coal seam gas, or other substances for extraction, via a technique called induced hydraulic fracturing."

"The process of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, involves drilling a hole deep into the dense shale rocks which contain natural gas, and then pumping in at very high pressure vast quantities of water mixed with sand and chemicals."

"Hundreds of chemicals are used, some of them potentially toxic, including methanol, naphthalene, benzene, and lead."

"Although hydraulic fracturing has been done since the 1940's, the rapid expansion of its application to unconventional gas production has raised environmental concerns around the world."

"The process of hydro fracking involves water availability, its use and potential contamination, and on greenhouse-gas emissions from shale gas production."

"Many shale deposits are buried under aquifers, and if the cement casing around the wellhole is not adequate, then the process of drilling and fracking can release the chemicals into the aquifer and such leaks of methane can take place, possibly leading to fires or explosions."

"Natural gas is located in densely packed rock; such as, shale and the hydraulic fracturing starts with a hole that is drilled into the shale rock layer, which is not nearly as thick as it is long."

"As soon as the drill reaches the layer of shale rock, it makes a right angle turn and moves horizontally and then the well bore is lined with concrete so it will keep fluids from seeping out and a water and sand mixture is pumped under high pressure down the well bore and into the holes where it fractures the shale."

"Gas in the rock is forced into the well bore and a temporary plug is inserted; and finally, the plugs are drilled out and the gas flows to the surface."

"To summarize, the U.S. federal government is beginning to undertake a review of the chemicals that are used in hydraulic fracturing, the relatively recent technique used to release vast stores of natural gas buried underground."

"The technique uses millions of liters, or gallons, of water, sand, and chemicals; including carcinogens; such as, benzene which is injected at high pressure to fracture the rock and release the stored gas."

"Environmental groups have exposed several persistent dangers: leaks in wells because of faulty casing or migration through layers or rock; breaches in the above-ground tanks that are meant to store used drilling chemicals; and an increase in air emissions."

"Environmentalists are suing the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, saying the regulatory agency hasn't done enough to justify honoring requests by companies to keep the public from reviewing ingredients in hydraulic fracturing fluids."

"Hydraulic fracturing involves pumping water, sand and chemicals into oil and gas wells to crack open fissures. Wyoming has required oilfield service companies to disclose to state officials the ingredients in their fracking fluids since 2010."

"Testing groundwater for fracking-related pollution gets complicated because what goes into fracking fluids isn't generally known outside the companies that make it."

—Compiled from excerpts located in
"Wyoming: Environmentalists sue over fracking fluid" by Mead Gruver;
Cheyenne, Wyoming; The Associated Press; March 27; 2012.
infract (verb), infracts; infracted; infracting
1. To fail to obey or to fulfill a law, a contract, or an agreement.
2. To break, to violate, or to infringe a law, commitment, etc.
infraction (s) (noun), infractions (pl)
1. The act of breaking or violating a law, a pledge, a contract, or an agreement: Monroe was penalized for an infraction of parking on the street beyond the time limit.
2. Etymology: Middle English, from Medieval Latin infraction, infractio; from Latin, "subduing", from infringere "to break".
AN infringement of the rules.
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infrangible (adjective), more infrangible, most infrangible
1. Difficult or impossible to break or to separate into parts.
2. Unable to be broken or to be separated into pieces.
infringe (verb), infringes; infringed; infringing
1. To break in or to violate the terms or requirements of, as an oath or law: To copy the contents of Dana's book and put it in another person's publication without permission infringed on her copyright.
2. Etymology: from Latin infringere, "to damage, to break off"; from in-, "in" + frangere, "to break".
To violate or to trespass on the rights of other people.
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infringement (s) (noun), infringements (pl)
Any violation of a right, privilege, regulation, law, rule, contract, etc.
infringer (s) (noun), infringers (pl)
Someone who actively breaks the terms of a law, an agreement, etc.
ion fractionation (s) (noun), ion fractionations (pl)
A separation of negatively charged ions or positively charged ions, from a solution by use of a membrane which is permeable to the desired degree, using electro dialyzers and ion-fractionations.
irrefragable (adjective), more irrefragable, most irrefragable
1. Descriptive of being impossible to break or to alter: The rules at school were irrefragable and the students had to obey and abide by them.
2. Relating to something that is impossible to prove as being wrong or false: The fact that people and animals get hungry is an irrefragable truth.

The certainty that snow is white is irrefragable!
3. Etymology: from Latin infringere, "to damage, to break off", from in-, "not" + frangere, "to break".

lunatic fringe (s) (noun), lunatic fringes (pl)
The minority considered foolishly extremist, fanatical, etc. in a political, social, religious, or other movement.
phacofragmentation (s) (noun), phacofragmentations (pl)
A rupture or tearing and of the lens.

Related break, broken-word units: clast-; rupt-.