ex-, e-, ef-
(Latin: a prefix occurring in words of Latin origin used in the senses: out, out of, from; upward; completely, entirely; to remove from, deprive of; without; former [said of previous holders of office or dignity])
Before f, ex- becomes ef-; before all voiced consonants (as b, d, g, etc.) ex- becomes e-.
Tim's mother had to use tweezers to extract a splinter from his thumb.2. To get something despite a resistance: Jack finally extracted a promise from his sister not to tell their parents that he had thrown a ball through the window by mistake!
3. To obtain from a substance by chemical or mechanical action; as, by pressure, distillation, or evaporation: In biology class at school, the students learned that caffeine could be extracted from coffee beans by a process known as water processing.
4. To remove for separate consideration or publication; to excerpt: A hacker was able to extract and transfer important data from Rebecca’s computer to his own.
5. To derive or to obtain information from a source or to deduce a principle or doctrine; to construe a meaning: Susan was hoping to extract some useful background data from the internet to include in her article for the newspaper.
6. To derive pleasure from some source or situation: Bob extracted so much enjoyment from reading his new book that he wanted to get another one by the same author.
7. Etymology: borrowed from French extraction; from Latin extractionem from extractio; from the stem of Latin extrahere, "to pull out"; from ex-, "out" + trahere, "to pull".
2. The act of copying or removing a passage from a text: Mildred was able to get certain extractions clarifying the life of the author from his memoirs.
3. The removal of a tooth or teeth: Sally had to go to the dentist to have a dental extraction performed because of a severe case of molar decay.
Extractions of one or more teeth may be performed when a tooth is severely decayed, when an abscess has formed, or when a tooth is too badly broken to be repaired by crowning or root-canal treatment.4. In chemistry, the separation of a substance from a mixture by dissolving one or more of the components in a solvent: There are different types of extractions, one of which is decoction, which is the removal of water-soluable drug substances by boiling them in water.
5. The ethnic origin or the original nationality of someone's ancestors: Jane's husband was of Spanish extraction.
2. A device that removes a liquid from an object: There are extractors that remove juice from fruit.
2. Not reasonable; going far beyond what is reasonable, moderate, or normal: Aaron's son had an extreme reaction to the medication that was prescribed by his doctor.
3. Farthest out, especially from the center; most remote in any direction; outermost or farthest: Mark and his family made a trip to the extreme area north of the country.
4. Very strict or severe; of the greatest severity; drastic: While traveling by air, Jake experienced extreme and costly security measures.
5. A description of sports or leisure activities in which participants actively seek out dangerous or even life-threatening experiences.
6. Being in or attaining the greatest or highest degree of something that is very intense: Sometimes people have extreme pleasure or extreme pain.
7. Etymology: from Latin ex-, "out of"; extremus, "outermost, utmost"; superlative of exter, exterus, "on the outside, outward, external, foreign, strange".
These microbes are called extremophiles because they thrive in environments that, from the human point of view, are clearly the farthest from normal situations and scientists have recognized that places once assumed to be sterile abound with a great deal of microbial life.