electro-, electr-, electri-

(Greek > Latin: electric, electricity; from amber, resembling amber, generated from amber which when rubbed vigorously [as by friction], produced the effect of static electricity)

Electronics in our lives consists of numerous tools

Equipment which we use everyday relies on electronics to function including calculators, car controls, cameras, washing machines, medical scanners, mobile telephones, radar systems, computers; as well as many other applications or devices which are listed in this unit.

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator, ENIAC
The first completely digital computer and an ancestor of most computers in use today: The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) was developed by Dr. John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert during World War II at the Moore School of the University of Pennsylvania.

The massive ENIAC, which weighed 30 tons and filled an entire room, used some 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors, and 10,000 capacitors.

In December, 1945, it solved its first problem regarding the calculations for the hydrogen bomb. After its official unveiling in 1946, it was used to prepare artillery-shell trajectory tables and perform other military and scientific calculations.

electronic organ, electrone
1. An instrument in which musical tones that are generated by electronically driven reeds are processed, amplified, and passed through a set of loud speakers.
2. A musical instrument that uses electronic circuits to produce music similar to that of a pipe organ.
3. An electrophonic instrument played by means of a keyboard in which sounds are produced and amplified by any of various electronic or electrical methods.
4. The electronic counterpart of the pipe organ where all tones and tone variations; such as, vibrato, tremolo, etc., are produced by electronic circuits instead of by pipes.
electronic pacemaker, pacemaker
An electrical appliance, usually with electrodes planted in the myocardium (heart muscle), which performs the pacing functions in a diseased heart that is no longer capable of pacing itself.

Electronic pacemakers can receive power from implanted batteries, radio frequency signals, biological energy sources, etc.

electronic packaging
1. The technical process of assembling electronic equipment, in which components are inserted above specific holes on multilayered circuit boards and then soldered to the printed wiring, which is often on the opposite side of the board.
2. The technology of packaging electronic equipment.

In current usage, it refers to inserting discrete components, integrated circuits, and MSI and LSI chips (usually attached to a lead frame by beam leads) into plates through holes on multilayer circuit boards (also called cards), where they are soldered in place.

3. The technology relating to the establishment of electrical interconnections and appropriate housing for electrical circuitry.

Electronic packages provide four major functions:

  • Interconnection of electrical signals.
  • Mechanical protection of circuits.
  • Distribution of electrical energy (that is, power) for circuit function.
  • Dissipation of heat generated by circuit function.
electronic part
A basic circuit element which can't be disassembled and still functions with its intended operations.

Examples of electronic parts are filters, capacitors, connectors, resistors, switches, relays, transformers, crystals, electron tubes, and semiconductor mechanisms.

electronic phase angle meter, electronic phase-angle meter
1. An instrument which uses electronic devices; such as, amplifiers and limiters, to change an A.C. voltage into square waves before measuring its phase angle.
2. A phasemeter or a device for measuring the difference in phase of two alternating currents of electromotive forces which makes use of electronic devices; such as, amplifiers and limiters, that convert the alternating-current voltages being measured into square waves whose spacings are proportional to phase.

The limiters mentioned in the above definitions refer to electronic circuits that are used to prevent the amplitudes of electronic waveforms from exceeding specified levels while preserving the shapes of the waveforms at amplitudes less than the specified levels.

Also known as amplitude limiters; amplitude-limiting circuits; automatic peak limiters; clippers; clipping circuits; limiter circuits; and peak limiters.

electronic photometer, photoelectric photometer
A photometer (instrument used for making measurements of light or electromagnetic radiation, in the visible range) which uses a photocell, a phototransistor, or a phototube to measure the intensity of light.
electronic piano
1. An instrument in which musical tones are generated by electronically driven strings that are processed, amplified, and passed through a set of loud speakers.
2. A piano without a sounding board, in which vibrations of each string affect the capacitance of a capacitor microphone and then produce audio-frequency signals that are amplified and reproduced by a loudspeaker.
electronic polarization
1. The ionic energy (in the form of charged atoms) that an electron exhibits in the presence of an electric field.
2. Polarization arising from the displacement of electrons with respect to the nuclei with which they are associated, upon application of an external electric field.
electronic position indicator, EPI
1. An electronic tool that displays the navigational positions of ocean craft.
2. A radio navigation system used in hydrographic surveying (surveying, and mapping of the oceans, seas, and rivers) which provides circular lines of positions.
3. An apparatus used to measure ship-to-shore distances by measuring the time elapsed for a radio echo to take place.
electronic power supply, power supply
1. A system that converts alternating current from a wall outlet into the direct currents required by electronic circuits.

A computer power supply converts alternating current into multiple direct current voltages; for example, twelve volts is commonly used for drives, while 3.3 volts and 5 volts are used by the chips and other motherboard components.

2. A device used to convert, regulate, and transmit external power for use by the components housed inside a computer chassis.
electronic product code, EPC
A serial, created by the Auto-ID Center, that will complement barcodes.

The EPC has digits to identify the manufacturer, product category and the individual item.

electronic products
Materials, parts, components, subassemblies, and equipment that employ the principles of electronics in performing their major functions.

Such products may be used as tools and controls in communications, detection, amplification, computation, inspection, testing, measurement, operation, recording, analysis, and other functions employing electronic principles.

electronic profilometer
An electronic tool used for measuring surface roughness.

The diamond-point stylus of a permanent-magnet dynamic pickup is moved over the surface being checked out, and the resulting varying voltage is amplified, corrected, and measured with a meter calibrated to read directly in micro-inches of deviations or differences from the smoothness desired.

electronic pumping
The application of optical, infrared, or microwave radiation of appropriate frequency to a laser or maser medium so that absorption of the radiation increases the population of atoms or molecules in higher energy states.

A maser is a device for the creation, amplification, and transmission of an intense, highly focused beam of high-frequency radio waves.

The name maser is an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation", microwaves being radio waves of short wavelength, or high frequency.

The references or sources of information for compiling the words and definitions in this unit are listed at this Electronic Bibliography page or specific sources are indicated when they are appropriate.

A cross reference of word units that are related, directly and/or indirectly, with "electricity": galvano-; hodo-; ion-; piezo-; -tron; volt; biomechatronics, info; mechatronics, info.