cranio-, crani-, cran- +

(Greek > Medieval Latin [c.700-c.1500]: head, skull)

acrania (s) (noun), acranias (pl)
A partial or complete absence of the skull: The hikers discovered the skeleton of a fox that appeared to be an acrania because there was no evidence of any head bones.
aegicrania
Sculptured ornaments, used in classical architecture, representing rams' heads or skulls.
amphicrania
A headache or pain affecting both sides of the head.
attached craniotomy
a craniotomy wherein the bone segment removed from the skull to provide access to the brain remains attached to the overlying tissues.

The bone segment and the associated tissues are returned to their original positions at the completion of the craniotomy.

auriculocranial
1. Relating to the auricle or pinna (primary segment) of the ear and the cranium.
2. A reference to an ear and the cranium.
bucranium
1. In Roman times, an ox skull that was carved in relief and was part of the decoration of a building.
2. A sculptured ornament, representing an ox skull adorned with wreaths, etc.
chamecranial
Having a head that is low for its length.
chondrocranium
A cartilaginous skull; the cartilaginous (connective tissue substance) parts of the developing skull.
cleidocranial
Relating to the clavicle (collar bone) and the cranium (bones of the skull which contain the brain).
cleidocranial dysostosis, craniocleidodysostosis, cleidocranial dysplasia
A genetic disorder of bone development that is characterized by absent or incompletely formed collarbones and cranial and facial abnormalities that may include a square skull, late closure of the sutures of the skull, late closure of the fontanels (soft spots; skin and membrane-covered spaces remaining at the junction of the sutures, especially between the frontal and parietal bones in the incompletely covered skull), low nasal bridge, delayed eruption of the teeth, and abnormal permanent teeth.

A child with this disorder can bring his or her shoulders together, or nearly so. The gene for cleidocranial dysostosis has been found on chromosome six in band p21.

common migraine
A migraine without an aura. This is the most frequent type of migraine, accounting for about 80 to 85 percent of migraines.

An aura is a sensation that is perceived by a patient which precedes a condition affecting the brain.

An aura often occurs before a migraine or seizure. It may consist of flashing lights, a gleam of light, blurred vision, an odor, the feeling of a breeze, numbness, weakness, or difficulty in speaking.

cranial
1. Relating to, involving, or located in the skull; especially, the part covering the brain; toward or of the head.
2. Referring to the cranium or to the anterior (in animals) or superior (in humans) end of the body.
cranial nerves
The twelve nerves of the brain, that emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium) as opposed to the spinal nerves; which emerge from the vertebral column:
  1. Olfactory nerve (carries impulses for the sense of smell from the nose to the brain).
  2. Optic nerve (carries the impulses formed by the retinas of the eyes which are dispatched through the optic nerve to the brain and interprets them as images).
  3. Oculomotor nerve (nerve supply to muscles around the eyes and upper eyelid muscle which raises the eyelid; the extraocular muscle which moves the eye inward; and the pupillary muscle which constricts the pupils).
  4. Trochlear nerve (nerve supply to the superior oblique muscles of the eyes, one of the muscles that moves the eyes; the only cranial nerve that comes from the back of the brain stem and follows the longest course within the skull of any of the cranial nerves).
  5. Trigeminal nerve (functions both as the chief nerve of sensation for the face and the motor nerve controlling the muscles of mastication [chewing]).
  6. Abducent nerve (supplies the muscles called the lateral rectus muscles which move the eyes outward).
  7. Facial nerve (supplies the muscles of facial expression, salivary glands, and taste buds).
  8. Vestibulocochlear nerve (responsible for the sense of hearing and it is also pertinent to balance and the sense of body positions).
  9. Glossopharyngeal nerve (supplies the tongue, throat, and one of the salivary glands [the parotid gland largest of the three major salivary glands]; muscles involved in swallowing and taste).
  10. Vagus nerve (supplies nerve fibers to the pharynx [throat], larynx [voice box], trachea [windpipe], lungs, heart, esophagus and most of the intestinal tract [as far as the transverse portion of the colon] and it brings sensory information back from the ear, tongue, pharynx and larynx).
  11. Accessory nerve (supplies the sternocleidomastoid [muscle in the front of the neck which turns the head] and the trapezius muscles [either of two flat triangular muscles of the shoulder and upper back that are involved in moving the shoulders and arms, turns the face to the opposite side, and helps to pull the head back]).
  12. Hypoglossal nerve (enervates the muscles of the tongue).
craniectomy
1. Surgical removal of a portion of the cranium.
2. Surgery performed on the skull where pieces of bone are removed to gain access to the brain and the bone pieces are not replaced.
cranioaural, cranio-aural
Relating to the skull and the ear.