cranio-, crani-, cran- +
(Greek > Medieval Latin [c.700-c.1500]: head, skull)
The bone segment and the associated tissues are returned to their original positions at the completion of the craniotomy.
2. A reference to an ear and the cranium.
2. A sculptured ornament, representing an ox skull adorned with wreaths, etc.
A child with this disorder can bring his or her shoulders together, or nearly so. The gene for cleidocranial dysostosis has been found on chromosome six in band p21.
An aura is a sensation that is perceived by a patient which precedes a condition affecting the brain.
An aura often occurs before a migraine or seizure. It may consist of flashing lights, a gleam of light, blurred vision, an odor, the feeling of a breeze, numbness, weakness, or difficulty in speaking.
2. Referring to the cranium or to the anterior (in animals) or superior (in humans) end of the body.
- Olfactory nerve (carries impulses for the sense of smell from the nose to the brain).
- Optic nerve (carries the impulses formed by the retinas of the eyes which are dispatched through the optic nerve to the brain and interprets them as images).
- Oculomotor nerve (nerve supply to muscles around the eyes and upper eyelid muscle which raises the eyelid; the extraocular muscle which moves the eye inward; and the pupillary muscle which constricts the pupils).
- Trochlear nerve (nerve supply to the superior oblique muscles of the eyes, one of the muscles that moves the eyes; the only cranial nerve that comes from the back of the brain stem and follows the longest course within the skull of any of the cranial nerves).
- Trigeminal nerve (functions both as the chief nerve of sensation for the face and the motor nerve controlling the muscles of mastication [chewing]).
- Abducent nerve (supplies the muscles called the lateral rectus muscles which move the eyes outward).
- Facial nerve (supplies the muscles of facial expression, salivary glands, and taste buds).
- Vestibulocochlear nerve (responsible for the sense of hearing and it is also pertinent to balance and the sense of body positions).
- Glossopharyngeal nerve (supplies the tongue, throat, and one of the salivary glands [the parotid gland largest of the three major salivary glands]; muscles involved in swallowing and taste).
- Vagus nerve (supplies nerve fibers to the pharynx [throat], larynx [voice box], trachea [windpipe], lungs, heart, esophagus and most of the intestinal tract [as far as the transverse portion of the colon] and it brings sensory information back from the ear, tongue, pharynx and larynx).
- Accessory nerve (supplies the sternocleidomastoid [muscle in the front of the neck which turns the head] and the trapezius muscles [either of two flat triangular muscles of the shoulder and upper back that are involved in moving the shoulders and arms, turns the face to the opposite side, and helps to pull the head back]).
- Hypoglossal nerve (enervates the muscles of the tongue).
2. Surgery performed on the skull where pieces of bone are removed to gain access to the brain and the bone pieces are not replaced.