clado-, clad-, -cladous +

(Greek klados: shoot, young branch; branch; twig)

acanthocladous
Any plant having thorny branches or relating to such a plant.
clade
1. A branch of the evolutionary tree or a taxon (category of organisms) made up of an ancestor and all of its descendants.
2. A monophyletic taxon; a group of organisms which includes the most recent common ancestor of all of its members and all of the descendants of that most recent common ancestor.
cladistics, cladism, cladistic method, cladistic analysis
1. A method of classifying organisms into groups (taxa) based on "recency of common descent" as determined by the possession of shared derived characteristics.
2. A method of classification in which phylogenetic (evolutionary development or history) hypotheses (theories) are the basis for classification and the recency of common ancestry is the sole criterion for grouping taxa.
cladocarpous, cladogenous
1. Certain mosses bearing the fructifications (fruiting of a plant, fungus, etc.) along the main stem or lateral branches.
2. Having the fruit terminal on short lateral branchlets.
cladodont (s), cladodonts (pl)
Having teeth with prominent central and small lateral cusps (small elevations on the grinding or chewing surface of a tooth).
cladogenesis
1. The development of a new clade (branch of evolutionary tree) or the splitting of a single lineage into two distinct lineages.
2. An evolutionary change by the branching off of new species from common ancestral types.
cladogram
1. A tree-like diagram (dendrogram) illustrating the evolutionary descent of any group of organisms.
2. An evolutionary tree diagram with groups arranged by branch points to show their relative relationships.

Groups that are closer together share a more recent common ancestor than those which are farther apart.

3. A diagram, resulting from a cladistic analysis, which depicts a hypothetical branching sequence of lineages leading to the taxa (category of organisms) under consideration.

The points of branching within a cladogram are called nodes. All taxa occur at the endpoints of the cladogram.

cladophyll, cladode
1. A flattened branch or stem having the function and often the appearance of a leaf.
2. A branch coming up from the axil of a leaf or a green, flattened stem resembling a foliage leaf.

The axil is the space between a leaf or branch and the stem to which it is attached.

cladoptosis
1. The periodic shedding of twigs.
2. The shedding of branches and stems by abscission or the natural process by which leaves or other parts are shed from a plant.
cladosporiosis
1. Infection with a fungus of the genus Cladosporium.
2. A common term for an infection with a cladosporium fungus, which causes rough skin, black lesions on the hands, and sometimes a brain abscess (collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue).
3. A genus of fungi commonly isolated in soil or plant residues including some species that cause abscesses of the brain or lungs or lesions on the skin.
hebecladous
Having pubescent branches.
heterocladic
1. Describing a communication between banches of differing arteries.
2. Denoting an anastomosis between branches of different arterial trunks.

Anastomosis is an opening created by surgical, traumatic, or pathological means between two normally separate spaces or organs.

homocladic
A reference to an anastomosis (opening created by surgical, traumatic or pathological means between two normally separate spaces or organs) between branches of the same arterial trunk or blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.
neurocladic
Referring to a theoretical phenomenon in which the regeneration of injured neuraxons (long threadlike extensions of a nerve cell that conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body) is considered to occur by production of collateral or terminal branches.
phylloclade
A green, flattened or rounded, stem which functions as a leaf, as in a cactus.