sciatica, sciatic +

(Latin: from Medieval Latin sciatica, in sciatica passio, "sciatic disease", from feminine of sciaticus, "sciatic"; from Latin ischiadicus, "of pain in the hip"; from Greek iskhiadikos, iskhias, iskhiados, "pain in the hips"; from iskhion, "hip joint".)

common spinal sciatica
A sciatic neuralgia with pain in the lumbosacral region that radiates down the back of the thigh, the lateral aspect of the leg, and into the foot.

It results from involvement of the sciatic nerve roots or trunk by tumor, intervertebral disk, or inflammation.

It may be accompanied by a neurologic deficit of the reflexes, muscle power, or sensation in the involved lower extremity.

1. A reference to the long, thick, sciatic nerve (nervus ischiadicus) which extends from the sacrum down the back of the thigh.
2. Pertaining to, due to, or afflicted with sciatica.
3. Etymology: derived from a Latinized corruption of the Greek ischiadikos, "subject to trouble in the hips or loins"; which was taken from ischion, "the hip joint".
sciatic dislocation
Displacement of the femoral head out of the hip joint, usually accompanied by pain, edema, rigidity, shortening of the leg, and loss of function in which the femoral head lies in the sciatic notch.
sciatic hernia
A protrusion of tissue through the greater sciatic notch.

The sciatic notch consists of either of two notches on the dorsal border of the hipbone on each side that when closed off by ligaments form the corresponding sciatic foramina (opening).

It may be a relatively large notch just above the ischial spine that is converted into the greater sciatic foramen by the sacrospinous ligament called also greatersciatic notch or a smaller notch just below the ischial spine that is converted to the lesser sciatic foramen by the sacrospinous ligament and the sacrotuberous ligament; also called the "lesser sciatic notch".

sciatic nerve
1. The largest nerve in the body, which begins from nerve roots in the lumbar spinal cord in the low back (sacrum) and extends through the buttock area, sending nerve endings down through the legs and knees.
2. The largest nerve in the body, arising from the sacral plexus on either side, passing from the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen, and down the back of the thigh, where it divides into the tibial and peroneal nerves.
sciatic neuritis
An inflammation of the sciatic nerve, usually marked by pain and tenderness along the course of the nerve through the thigh and leg.

It may result in a wasting of the muscles of the lower leg over time.

sciatic scoliosis
The lateral curvature of the spine caused by an asymmetric spasm of the spinal muscles, often resulting in a list (tilt) to one side.
1. Severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve felt at the back of the thigh and running down the inside of the leg.
2. Pain that results from irritation of the sciatic nerve and typically radiates from the buttocks area to the back of the thigh.

Although sciatica can result from a herniated disc pressing directly on the nerve, any cause of irritation or inflammation of this nerve can reproduce the painful symptoms of sciatica.

Medical diagnosis is made via the observation of symptoms, physical examination and nerve tests, and sometimes X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), if a herniated disk is suspected.

Treatment options include avoiding movements that further irritate the condition, use of medication, physical therapy, a mild form of an applicable exercise, and sometimes surgery.

The clinical diagnosis of sciatica is referred to as a radiculopathy, which means simply that a disc has protruded from its normal position in the vertebral column and is putting pressure on the radicular nerve (nerve root) in the lower back, which forms part of the sciatic nerve.

small sciatic nerve
The posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, a cutaneous nerve supplying the skin of the buttocks, perineum (region of the abdomen surrounding the urogenital and anal openings), popliteal region (area behind the knee joint), and the back of the thigh and the leg.