Confusing Words Clarified: Group R; Homonyms, Homophones, Homographs, Synonyms, Polysemes, etc. +

(lists of "R" sections that are organized into what for some people are confusing groups of words)

If you have any problems understanding the pronunciation symbols, go to this Pronunciation Chart for clarifications.

repassed, repast
repassed (ri PAST) (verb)
1. To have returned or to be sent in the opposite direction: Because the postal code was missing on the letter, it was repassed to the sender and would have to be mailed again with the appropriate information.
2. To accept or to adopt for a second time: After much discussion and several revisions, the new tax measure was repassed at the city hall.
repast (ri PAST) (noun)
A meal or feast: The repast at the new restaurant lived up to the reputation of the chef.

Willard's friend offered Tony a light repast before he started his trip.

After the bylaw was repassed by the city councillors with amendments, they all went to the cafeteria for a repast to celebrate their accomplishments.

reported, retorted, reputed, reputed
reported (ri PAWRT'd, ri POHRT'd) (verb)
1. To have made a written or verbal account of something: The radio reported that there was a bad accident on the highway.

The gym instructor reported on the new equipment for the gymnasium.

2. To herald the presence or arrival of something: The cabin boy climbed to the crow's nest on the ship and reported that land was in sight.
3. To bring a matter that had been under consideration back to a group for further discussion and recommendations: The chairperson reported the proposals for energy conservation to the mayor's committee.
4. To give a formal accounting for something: The treasurer reported a balance in the city's accounts for the previous year.
retorted (ri TORT'd) (verb)
To have replied or answered back particularly in the context of an argument: Lenora was angry and retorted in an aggressive manner to the assertions being presented.
reputed (ri PYOOT'd) (verb)
To look upon or regard someone as having certain characteristics: Melba was reputed to have a green thumb and could make any garden bloom in the spring.
reputed (ri PYOOT'd) (adjective)
Relating to someone or something that is supposed to be true, to exist, or to have a specified identity, etc.: Jerry's friend was hired for his reputed talents as a superior manager.

"James has reported his findings," Nettie retorted sharply to criticism from her boss. As an accountant, she was reputed to be very thorough and exacting in her analysis of the budget.

requirement, requisition
requirement (ri KWIGHR muhnt) (noun)
Something that is needed or which is essential: Sunshine is a requirement for the garden to grow.

Taking a math course is a requirement in order to finish a person's high school education.

requisition (rek" wi ZISH uhn) (noun)
1. An authoritative demand for something: Frank completed a requisition for fresh vegetables to be delivered to the store every Wednesday.
2. A formal demand or request, typically between nations for the provision of something or the exchange of individuals: At the end of the war, the general sent a requisition for all the prisoners to be released immediately.
3. A request for something that is available but not readily provided: The doctor signed the requisition for additional flu vaccine for her clinic.

It is a requirement that Tony review all requisition slips that are being sent to the supply department.

reserve, reserve
reserve (ri ZURV) (noun)
1. Descriptive of a lack of communication or a lack of volunteering information; characteristic of a person who is shy or who shows self-restraint: The witness had a steady reserve in the face of persistent questioning by the lawyer.
2. That which is set aside for later use: Aurora decided to keep the extra jar of strawberry jam in reserve for breakfast.

Nathan kept funds in reserve in the sugar bowl for emergency expenses.

3. Military forces that are not on active duty but that can be called upon in emergencies: Craig's nephew was an officer in the naval reserve and he was called upon to provide aid to ships during the severe storms at sea.
4. An area of a country that is set aside for a special purpose: The mountain goats lived in the reserve high in the mountains.
reserve (RI surv) (verb)
To arrange for something to be saved: Sean asked that the management reserve a table for him and his family near the window of the restaurant.

Karl will reserve his comments until after the budget for the condominium fund reserve has been approved.

resew, resow
resew (ri SOH) (verb)
To mend or to baste and to tack something for a second time: Estella was careless with her clothes and so she had to resew on some of the buttons from time to time.
resow (ri SOH) (verb)
To replant a garden, plants, or a field for a subsequent time: The heavy rains flooded the field and the farmer had to resow his crops.

Millie had to resew the band on her sunhat after she worked in the garden. She was working in the garden again because she had to resow the lettuce seeds since the birds consumed most of the first sowing.

residence, residents
residence (REZ i duhns, REZ i dens") (noun)
1. The actual living place of an individual or people, as opposed to a temporary living place: His residence was located on a shady street with a lovely lawn in front of it.
2. A large and impressive house where an important or wealthy person lives: The book publisher spent three months at his summer residence.
3. A length of time that someone has lived in a location: Randy's forty year residence in Trisha's town was highlighted by his serving as mayor for three consecutive terms.
residents (REZ i duhnts, REZ i dents") (noun)
1. Individuals who live in a specific place: The hotel residents paid for the use of the gym at the time they registered.
2. Doctors who are training at hospitals to become specialists in particular fields of medicine: Lenora's cousins are both residents at the local hospital studying cardiology as their field of medical specialization.

The new medical residents were hoping to live in residence at the hospital.

resign, re-sign
resign (re ZIGHN) (verb)
1. To give up or to relinquish something: Latonya agreed to resign her position as treasurer of the group rather than face an inquiry into the missing funds.
2. Formally to renounce one's position in a government or other organizational situation: The king decided to resign from the throne so he could marry the woman he loved.
3. To agree or to accept something as inevitable: Jeremy feels that he must resign himself to staying home on Friday night.
re-sign (ree SIGHN) (verb)
To endorse a written or printed document for a second or more times: Because Alisha's signature was illegible on the original check, she had to re-sign it when she went to the bank.

Because of a perceived conflict of interest, Debora was forced to resign from her job; however, after an investigation, she was cleared of any charges and so she was able to re-sign her contract and to resume her work.

re-sort, resort
re-sort (ree SORT) (verb)
To arrange again according to class, kind, or size; to classify again: The library staff had to re-sort the books so they could include the new editions.
resort (ree ZORT) (noun)
1. A place frequented by people for relaxation or recreation: Morgan was thinking about going to the ski resort this winter.
2. Something that is final or a last possible option: The company will only declare bankruptcy as a last resort.

Since Eugene was going to a resort for the weekend, he had to re-sort his clothes to be sure he would have the right clothing for the trip.

respectable, respectful, respective
respectable (ri SPEK tuh buhl) (adjective)
1. Proper, typically in reference to one's manners or demeanor: Mark was a respectable young man and considered to be a good catch for the young ladies in the small town.
2. Tolerable, fair in size or amount: Howard's grades at school were considered respectable but not sufficiently strong enough to earn him a scholarship.
respectful (ri SPEKT fuhl) (adjective)
Descriptive of appreciation or courteous regard for someone: Cleo's respectful questions to the movie star were appreciated and answered thoroughly.
respective (ri SPEK tiv) (adjective)
Belonging to or relating to each one of the people or things that have been mentioned: After the meeting, each person went to his or her respective homes."

They are all very successful in their respective fields of study.

Each of the respective lawyers was regarded as highly respectable in legal circles. Ernest figured that he would have to be very respectful when talking with them.

respectably, respectfully, respectively
respectably (ri SPEKT tuh bli) (adverb)
Descriptive of how something is completed in a properly, decently, and morally reputable manner: At the end of the story, the two love birds were respectably married and lived happily ever after.
respectfully (ri SPEKT fuhl li) (adverb)
Pertaining to how someone acts in a way which shows that he or she is aware of the rights, wishes, etc. of others: The secretary for the meeting recorded that the deputy mayor respectfully suggested that the meeting be adjourned until the following week.
respectively (ri SPEKT tiv lee) (adverb)
Regarding how someone mentions or designates each person or object individually in a given order: When Mrs. Smart stated that the class did outstanding work, she was referring to each of the pupils respectively.

Susanne identified the actors as antagonist and protagonist respectively; so, she respectfully requested that they quit acting silly and start rehearsing their parts respectably.

rest, wrest
rest (REST) (noun)
1. Cessation of work, exertion, or activity: The workers had a rest in the shade during their lunch.

Mildted went to her room for a rest after having a difficult day.

2. The part that is leftover after something has been removed; the remainder: The beginning of the film was boring, but the rest of it was interesting.
rest (REST) (verb)
1. To lie in a grave after death: Trudy's grandmother was laid to rest next to her grandfather.
2. To relax, to take it easy, to be calm: Janine wants to rest and listen to music after a hectic day at work.
wrest (REST) (verb)
1. To obtain by or as if by pulling with violent twisting movements: Cherie was able to wrest her purse back from the guy who was trying to take it from her.
2. To take something from someone, or others, with much effort: Earl was trying to wrest control of the company again from the guys who had taken it over.

James needed a rest because he was very tired after having tried to wrest a favorable decision from the judge regarding the case in court this morning.

restful, restive, restless
restful (REST fuhl) (adjective)
Characterizing a place which is calm or quiet: The cottage by the lake is a very restful place to spend the summer holidays.
restive (RES tiv) (adjective)
Fidgety; descriptive of a person who moves around excessively: When he felt restive, Sean would walk around in his office in a nervous or stressful manner.
restless (REST lis) (adjective)
1. Descriptive of someone who is lacking a peace of mind: Lorna's restless mind was always thinking of new plots for her series of novels.
2. Unhappy about a situation and wanting changes: The president of the university realized that the students were restless when they organized protest marches.
3. Relating to the condition of having little or no relaxation or sleep: Cassie spent a restless night because of the strong winds and thunder storms.

Having been restive all week long and feeling restless, Maggie was glad for the opportunity to go to the cottage where it is always quiet and restful.

resumé, résumé, resume; resume; synopsis, summary, summary
resumé, résumé, resume (REZ oo may", rez" oo MAY) (noun)
A brief written account of one's accomplishments and qualifications, typically in the context of an application for a position of employment: Jillian submitted her three page resumé by fax when applying for the new job.
resume (ri ZOOM) (verb)
1. To restart or to begin again after an interruption: After the applause died down, the speaker was encouraged to resume her presentation.
2. To return to a position or place: Ingrid is taking her vacation now, but she will resume her responsibilities when she returns.

The speaker was about to resume his place at the podium.

synopsis (si NAHP sis) (noun)
A condensed statement or abstract of something: Helene sent a two page synopsis of her thesis to the journal hoping that her research would be considered for publication.
summary (SUHM uh ree) (noun)
1. An abridgement of a written or verbal presentation: Before the author started her speech, she provided a summary of the book for the benefit of those who had not read it.
2. A comprehensive and succinct account of written or verbal information: At the conclusion of Mike's class report, he presented a summary of the significant points which he had made.
summary (SUHM uh ree) (adjective)
Relating to something which is quickly accomplished: The judge presented her summary judgment at the conclusion of the trial.

Glenn said he would resume writing his résumé after lunch. It will include a summary of all of his previous work experiences as well as a brief synopsis describing the performance results for each of his former positions.

retain, retain
retain (ri TAYN) (verb)
1. To maintain possession of something in one's memory; especially, for a long time: Marilyn has a remarkable ability to retain odd facts.
2. To keep or to hold in a particular place, condition, or position: The TV show has been able to retain its popularity for many years.
retain (ri TAYN) (verb)
1. To hire an attorney, for example, by the payment of a fee: They have decided to retain a firm to conduct the survey and they may need to retain an attorney, too.
2. To keep in one's service or pay: The company's goal is to attract and to retain good employees.

Betty was able to retain the services of a good butler because she needed someone who was able to retain detailed information on the needs of her various guests.

retard, retard, retarred
retard (ri TAHRD) (verb)
To cause to move or to proceed slowly; to delay or to impede: The brakes on the wagon served to retard the descent of the wagon down the mountain trail.
retard (REE tahrd") (noun)
1. Used as a disparaging term for a mentally retarded person: Many old educational textbooks described a slow learning person as a retard.

More recently, the acceptable term for retard is "developmentally delayed".

2. A person who is considered to be foolish or socially inept: The child on the playground was rude, calling a boy a retard because he could not run very fast.
3. A slowing down or a hindering of progress; a delay: Being ill for several weeks was unfortunate as it caused a retard in Bill's academic progression towards his degree.
retarred (ri TAHRD) (verb)
1. To recover with a dark, oily, viscid mixture of hydrocarbons: The stretch of road was worn and needed to be retarred so cars could use it safely.
2. To re-smear someone with a distillation of resinous woods, coal, etc. and then to cover with feathers as a punishment: You would think that having been tarred and feathered last week, Lou would learn his lesson; however, he was retarred today because he tried to steal a loaf of bread.

The road had been retarred and the pavement was soft and served to retard the progression of Bruce's car as he was trying to drive home. He was upset and muttered something about the engineer in charge being a retard.

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