cement- +

(Latin: caementa, "stone chips" from caedere, "to cut down, chop, beat, hew, fell, slay")

cement (s) (noun), cements (pl)
1. A powdered substance composed primarily of burned clay and limestone that is mixed with water, sand, and gravel to form concrete.
2. In geology, any chemically precipitated material or ore mineral that minds together loose particles of sediment into coherent rock.
3. Any substance; such as, a preparation of glue, red lead, or lime, the hardening of which causes objects between which it is applied to adhere firmly.
4. Any compound or substance applied in the form of a mortar and used for producing a hard and stony, smooth, water proof surface, coating, filling, or lining; as, for a floor or a cistern.

Ordinary cement is made by heating limestone and clay, or a natural rock containing both materials in the right proportions. When it hardens under water, it is called hydraulic cement

5. That which serves to bind people or special interests together.
6. Auriferous gravel held together by a clay or silicic bond; also, the binding substance.
7. Etymology: from Old French ciment, which came from Latin cæmenta, "stone chips used for making mortar", from cædere, "to cut down, chop, beat, hew, fell, slay".

The evolution of the meaning, "small broken stones" to "powdered stones used in construction", took place before the word became a part of English.

1. The act of cementing or the result of cementing.
2. The application of cement or a similar substance to something, or the result of this.
3. The modification of a solid, especially a metal, by heating it with one or more other substances that will diffuse into the surface; such as, the production of steel by heating it with charcoal.
4. A metallurgical coating process in which iron or steel is immersed in a powder of another metal; such as, zinc, chromium, or aluminum, and heated to a temperature below the melting point of either.
5. In geology, sedimentary rock formation or the process in which percolating ground water deposits a cementing material to form a sedimentary rock.
6. The injecting of cement into holes or fissures in rocks to make them watertight or strong.
7. The attachment of anything with cement; such as, of restorative material to a natural tooth, or of bands to teeth.
Having the quality of cementing or uniting firmly.
1. A hard brittle iron carbide found in steel with more than 0.85 percent carbon.
2. An iron carbide, or a constituent of steel and cast iron, sometimes with part of its iron replaced by another metal; such as, manganese.
3. A hard and brittle intermetallic compound that has negligible solubility limits.
1. The hard tissue covering the roots of teeth.
2. A bone-like substance that covers the root of a mammalian tooth and helps to fix it in the socket (alveolus) of the jaw bone.

It is very compact and hard, having a higher mineral content than bone.

There are two main types, cellular and acellular. In some animals, cementum also forms an external layer on the crown.

Also called, crusta petrosa dentis, crusta radicis, bony substance of tooth, substantia ossea dentis, and cement.

Cement, an adversary of the "green" way, is crucial to global growth

In booming economies from Asia to Eastern Europe, cement is the glue of progress. The material that is known to bind the ingredients of concrete together is essential for constructing buildings and laying roads in much of the world.

  • Eighty percent of cement is made in and used by emerging economies, while China alone makes and uses 45 percent of global production, cement production and usage is also doubling every four years in some other parts of the world.
  • Making cement creates pollution, in the form of carbon dioxide emissions, and the greenest of technologies can reduce that by only twenty percent.
  • Making the problem worse, cement has no viable recycling potential, as the abandoned buildings that line roads from Tunisia to Mongolia reveal.
  • Each new road, each new building, needs new cement.
  • Unlike many industries, cement has a basic chemical problem: The chemical reaction that creates cement releases large quantities of carbon dioxide in and of itself.
  • While most of carbon dioxide emissions come from the combination of cement ingredients, the remainder is produced from the fuels used in production, which can be mitigated by the use of greener technology.
  • Western cement manufacturers emphasize that emissions problems cannot be solved until China and India and other booming economies realize that they must limit emissions as well.

—A modified summary of "The cement conundrum: Mixing gray with green",
by Elisabeth Rosenthal, International Herald Tribune, October 22, 2007; pages 1 and 12.