Roman Times and Events: Those about to Die, Special Terms
(words which identify Roman terms referring to people and other topics; especially, those appearing in Those about to Die)
Those who fought without the ability to see anything.
2. Among Ancient Romans, those who went into combat with beasts, or were exposed to them with the purpose of being killed.
There were two types of bestiarii
There were two categories of bestiarii: the first were those condemned to death by the beasts and the second were those who faced them voluntarily as fighters for entertainment purposes.
Although bestiarii (beast fighters) and venatores (hunters) both fought wild animals, there were differences. The bestiarii often were condemned criminals, or prisoners of war; who had little chance against the animals they fought (Seneca, De Beneficiis, II.19).
With no real training and often no defense, they were thrown to the beasts as punishment and for the spectacle of the Romans. Seneca (Epistles, LXX.20) wrote about a German prisoner, who rather than participate in such a show of bestiarii, killed himself by forcing a sponge used in the lavatory down his throat.
Another man who was taken to the morning show for punishment, nodded as if asleep and, lowering his head, thrust it between the spokes of the cart wheel, breaking his neck Seneca (Epistles, LXX.23).
Symmachus (Letters, II.46) also wrote about twenty-nine Saxon prisoners strangling one another in their cells the night before they were to appear in the arena.
Bestiarii was also the name given to those assistants who took care of the animals and goaded them into fighting or attempted to separate them from their victims. After awhile, they became more trained specialists in the handling and control of animals which were used in the circuses.
In the Satyricon (XLV), Echion complains about a particularly disappointing gladiatorial show and disparagingly remarks that he has seen bestiarii fight better.
Martial (Spectacles, XVII, XXVI) noted that Carpophorus, who was renown as a bestiarius, as having killed a bear, a lion, and a leopard. In fact, Carpophorus is said to have killed twenty wild animals in one show.
In the bow of ships the Romans had a long beam with a spike on one end and the other end was fastened to the foredeck by a heavy hinge. This was the corvus or "crow".
When the corvus was dropped on an opposing galley, the spike sank into the wood and held the two ships together. The corvus was then used as a gangplank for boarders to go aboard the other ship.
2. In modern use, one of two colleagues in authority.
2. A number of persons who are formed to seek some objective within a political party or a government: A faction suggests some quarrelsome dissent from the objectives pursued by those who are part of a majority of officials.
3. A literary work or film that is a mixture of fact and fiction: Some novels present history as a faction so the reader is always fascinated by the events that took place at some other time.
4. Etymology: from Latin factionem, "political party, class of people"; literally, "a making or doing", from facere, "to do".
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2. In ancient Rome, a professional fighter who fought another combatant, or a wild animal, in public entertainments which took place in an arena.
Often gladiators were criminals, or slaves, who were equipped with nets, nooses, swords, or other weapons for battle to entertain Romans in the circuses.
Soldiers of the sand (arena), who performed for an audience as entertainment. Inherited from the Etruscans, the gladiator performed throughout Italy, including Rome.
Whether military deserters, condemned criminals, slaves, or freemen; in all cases, they were thought to be volunteers because, otherwise, they probably wouldn't be worth the expense of training in the special schools (ludi).
The gladiator could be a very profitable investment and many of them became very wealthy and were as popular as professional athletes are today.
These fights took place in arenas in many cities from the Roman Republic period and into the Roman Empire times.
Gladiators were trained at special schools originally owned by private citizens, but later taken over by the imperial state to prevent the build up of a private army.
Gladiators trained like true athletes, much like professional athletes do today. They received medical attention and three meals a day. It is said, that their training included learning how to use various weapons, including, of course, the sword, the war chain, the net, a trident, a dagger, and even a lasso.
"Ludi Cercenses" (sur SEN seez) were games of the Circus; "ludic scenici" (SEN i sigh) of the theater.
Some were named for particular festivals: "ludi Apollinares" (uh pol" i NAY reez), in honor of Apollo, chiefly theatrical; "ludi Romani" (roh MAY nigh), in honor of Jupiter, in September; and "ludi Megalenses" (meg" uh LEN seez), in honor of the Magna Mater, April 4 to April 10.