(Latin: bottom; under surface; earth, dirt)
2. Fertile soil that can be found in aquatic communities (living in or on water for all or a substantial part of the life span; generally restricted to fresh water or inland waters).
2. A soil that develops under sparse shrub vegetation in warm to cool arid climates with a light-colored surface soil usually underlain by calcareous material and a hardpan layer.
3. A soil variety typically found in arid climates, usually with little leaching and minimal humus content.
Referred to as an "aridisol" in the nomenclature of the United States Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service.
The zonal soils of an area.
It should be taken into account that relict soils may represent a wide range of time periods.
2. All loose, unconsolidated, weathered, or otherwise altered surface material lying on the earth above bedrock.
Specifically, a natural accumulation of organic matter and inorganic rock material that is capable of supporting the growth of vegetation.
4. The ground when producing vegetation or as cultivated for its crops: "We used fertile soil for our garden."
5. The biologically active, porous medium that has developed in the uppermost layer of the earth's crust.
Soil is one of the principal substrata of life on earth, serving as a reservoir of water and nutrients, as a medium for the filtration and breakdown of injurious wastes, and as a participant in the cycling of carbon and other elements through the global ecosystem.
It has evolved through weathering processes driven by biological, climatic, geologic, and topographic influences.
7. The ground or earth: "The farmers were tilling their soil."
8. Any place or condition providing the opportunity for growth or development: "Some people believe that poverty provides the soil for crime and social instability."
The amount of carbon in the soil is a function of the historic vegetative cover and productivity, which in turn is influenced by climatic variables.
The technique of strip cropping (alternating different crops) is one method of soil conservation because it is believed to provide almost total resistance to erosion.