capit-, capt-, cap-, cep-, ceps-, chapt-, chef, cip-
(Latin: head; leader, chief, or first)
It may be surprising to see that a "captain" and a "chef" both belong to the same word family; however, a captain is, of course, the "head of a company of military soldiers", and a "chef is the captain of a group of cooks".
A chef, especially to those who love good food, is not a lowly official; and when it is remembered that the old saying that "an army travels on its stomach", a chef is every bit as important as a captain.
When the French borrowed words from Latin, they frequently used soft sounds. These French words, with their softer sounds, then made their way into the English language. At the same time, English borrowed words directly from Latin. So it is that in English we often have two words which share the same root, but which have different, though related, forms and meanings.
Don't confuse the words in this capit-, capt- unit with those in the cap-, cip-, "catch, seize" unit.
Equivalent to "from top to bottom".
2. To accomplish something successfully; perform at a standard or above a standard level.
3. Etymology: from Late Latin ad caput (venire, "to come"); both the Old French and Late Latin phrases meaning literally, "to come to a head", from Latin caput, "head".
To achieve something is to bring plans and actions to a head. This is the literal meaning of the ancestor of our word achieve, which was borrowed from the French in Norman times. They made the verb achever out of the preposition a-, "to", and chief, "head": "to bring to a head".
Old French chief comes, in turn, through a thousand years of gradual changes, which only the strongest (accented) syllables survived, from Latin caput, "head". The original sense, "bring to a head", easily acquired the present significance, "bring to a successful conclusion, make a success" of the task at hand.
2. The act of achieving; attainment or accomplishment.
3. In heraldry, the full display of the armorial bearings (bearing a coat or coats of arms) of an individual or corporation.
2. A successful and motivated person.
2. A popular term for the atmospheric deposition of acidified rain, snow, sleet, hail, acidifying gases and particles, as well as, acidified fog and cloud water.
3. Rain, snow, sleet or fog water having a pH less than 5.65.
4. The deposition of acidifying substances from the atmosphere during a precipitation event.
A person's biceps is a muscle having two heads or two points of attachment.
2. A student in a national service academy or private military school or on a training ship.
3. A student in training for service as a commissioned officer in the U.S. Army, Air Force, or Coast Guard.
4. A trainee in a business or profession.
5. Formerly a gentleman, usually a younger son, who entered the army to prepare for a subsequent commission.
6. Etymology: from 1610, originally "young son", French from Gascon capdet, "captain, chief"; from Late Latin capitellum, diminutive of Latin caput, capit-, "head".
2. The capa of a bullfighter.
3. A piece of land jutting into the sea or some other large body of water.
4. Etymology: cape (1) "garment", Old English capa, from Late Latin cappa ,"cape, hooded cloak". Also, cape (2) "promontory" A.D. 1386, from Middle French cap, which came from Latin caput "headland, head".
2. First-rate; excellent: "She had a capital idea."
3. Relating to or being a seat of government: "The capital of the state is functioning as a seat of government."
4. Extremely serious consequences: "He committed a capital blunder when he suggested more spending."
5. Involving death or calling for the death penalty: "He was convicted of a capital offense which involved punishment by death."
6. Of or relating to financial assets or involving financial capital; especially, those financial assets that add to the net worth of a business: "The company made some capital improvements this year."
7. Relating to or being a capital letter in the form A, B, C, etc. rather than a, b, c or the form of letters used at the beginning of sentences and names: "He wrote his message in capital letters instead of mixing uppercase letters (capitals) with lowercase letters (non-capitals) which is done normally."
2. A city regarded as being of special eminence in some field of activity: Hollywood was once the movie capital of the world; however, it is now being challenged by Bollywood of India; the extravagantly theatrical Indian motion picture industry (a blend of Bombay plus Hollywood).
3. A capital letter (upper case) versus an uncapitalized letter (lower case): "A capital letter is always used at the beginning of a sentence."
4. The wealth, whether in money or property, owned or employed in business by an individual, firm, corporation, etc.
5. An accumulated stock of such corporate wealth: "The fifty cents in Mike's pocket is all the capital that he has."
6. Any form of wealth employed or capable of being employed in the production of more wealth.
7. In accounting, assets remaining after deduction of liabilities; the net worth of a business or the ownership interest in a business.
8. Any source of profit, advantage, power, etc.; an asset.
9. Capitalists as a group or class; as distinguished from a labor class.
2. An economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods, characterized by a free competitive market and motivation by profit.
2. A conservative advocate of capitalism.
3. A person who has capital; especially, extensive capital, invested in business enterprises.
4. An advocate of capitalism.
5. A very wealthy person.
2. To use debt or budgeted expenditures as capital for development: Ted's company bought a new machine which would be more efficient in production, therefore the company capitalized by buying it for the firm's further improvement and growth.
3. To provide the money that is needed to start or to develop a business: Mary was looking for investors in order to capitalize her company's further development.