poen-, peno-, poino-, poin-, puni-, pain-, penal-, pent-

(Greek > Latin: pain, punishment, penalty)

penitent (adjective), more penitent, most penitent
1. A reference to the expression of a person's feeling or showing sorrow, remorse, and regret because of having done something wrong: Luke had a penitent attitude with his parents when he accidentally broke a window in the house as he was throwing a baseball back and forth with a friend.
2. Etymology: from Latin paenitentem, referring to "a cause or a feeling of regret."
Expressing sorrow for wrong-doing.
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1. Of or pertaining to penance; administering, or undergoing, penance.
2. Intended for or relating to the penal and reformatory treatment of criminals.
3. A reformatory prison; a house of correction.
4. In the U.S., the place of punishment in which convicts sentenced to confinement and hard labor are confined by the authority of the law.
A reference to the study, theory, and practice of prison management and criminal rehabilitation.
Someone who studies the theory and practice of prison management.
penology, poenology
The study, theory, and practice of prison management and criminal rehabilitation.

Penitentiary science which is concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners.

pine, pining, pined
1. To grow thin or weak with longing, grief, etc.
2. To have a great desire or longing for someone or something.
3. Etymology: From Middle English pinen, which came from Old English pinian, "to torture, to torment, to afflict"; from pin, "pain", ultimately from Latin poena, "punishment".

To pine or "to languish" is a derivative of an unrecorded Old English noun pine, "torture", originally borrowed into Germanic from pena, the post-classical descendant of Latin poena, "penalty" which is also the source of English pain.

Pine was one of the words introduced into Germanic with Christianity, and in English it was applied first to the "pains of hell". The noun has not been found in Old English; however, the verb pinian was common from an early period.

—The etymological information came from;
several sources; however, the most technical aspects are based on
information from The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology
by Robert K. Barnhart, Editor; The H.S. Wilson Company;
New York; 1988.
punishable (adjective), more punishable, most punishable
Subject to a penalty or possible fine: During the pandemic in the year 2021, it is punishable if a special mouth and nose mask is not worn on public transportation or while shopping.
punishably (adverb), more punishably, most punishably
Referring to how a disobedient or severe action merits discipline: The thief was found guilty and deserved punishably corrective measures for his corrupt behavior.

Cross references related to "pain, hurt; suffering, injury" word families: -agra; algesi-; algo-; angina-; dolor-; Masochism; noci-; odyno-; pono- (toil, work; pain); Sadism.