(Latin: chamber; from Greek kamara, anything with a vaulted or arched cover; a vault, arched ceiling, or roof)
2. The volume of the combustion chamber when a piston is located directly at the top center.
2. In a furnace, any space in which combustion occurs, or the space in which combustion of gaseous products occurs; such as, oil or kerosine is burned to provide heat.
3. In space technology, the part of a liquid rocket, ramjet, or gas turbine engine in which the combustion of propellants takes place at high pressure.
2. A special evacuated camera equipped with the means for holding a specimen and bombarding it with a sharply focused beam of electrons.
A cylindrical film placed around a specimen and which records the electrons that might be scattered or diffracted by it.
It is designed for use in satellites, where the stored image is not damaged by Van Allen or other cosmic radiation in the upper atmosphere.
Current meaning is "in private" which is applied especially to a hearing held by a judge in her/his chambers, or in an office, with the public and the press excluded. A judge's chambers [singular] is his/her private office for discussing cases or legal matters not taken up in open court.
2. A device used to detect and measure ionizing radiation, consisting of a gas-filled tube with electrodes at each end between which a voltage is maintained.
Radiation that ionizes gas molecules in the tube causes a current between the electrodes, the strength of which is a function of the radiation's intensity.3. A gas-filled enclosure fitted with electrodes between which electric current flows upon ionization of the gas by incident radiation, the electrodes being maintained at a potential difference just sufficient to collect ions thus produced without causing further ionization.
4. The device for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation.
It consists basically of a sealed chamber containing a gas and two electrodes between which a voltage is maintained by an external circuit.
When ionizing radiation; such as, a photon, enters the chamber (through a foil-covered window), it ionizes one or more gas molecules.
The ions are attracted to the oppositely charged electrodes; their presence causes a momentary drop in the voltage, which is recorded by the external circuit.
The observed voltage drop helps identify the radiation because it depends on the degree of ionization, which in turn depends on the charge, mass, and speed of the photon.
A Geiger-Müller counter results from the application of a still-higher voltage across the electrodes of a proportional counter.
Individual particles of various kinds and energies entering a Geiger-Müller counter produce essentially the same large output pulse, making the instrument an excellent counter of individual particles.
The mixture of gases within a Geiger counter quenches the avalanche of ions produced by a single particle of radiation so that the device can recover to detect another particle.
An additional significant increase in voltage causes a continuous current to flow through the gas between the electrodes, rendering the device useless for detecting radiation.
A collector is covered by a transparent glazing that heats up the air mass inside it; buoyancy then drives the warmer air into the chimney, where it drives a turbine.