ad-

(From Latin: "to, toward, a direction toward, an addition to, near, at"; and changes to: "ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, aq-, ar-, as-, at-" and ad- is also combined with certain words that begin with the letters c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, and t.)

The Latin element ad carries the idea of "in the direction of" and combines with many Latin words and roots to make common English words.

A capite ad calcem. (Latin)
Translation: "From head to heel; thoroughly."

Equivalent to "from top to bottom".

Ab ovo usque ad mala. (Latin)
Translation: "From the egg to the apples."

A Roman phrase similar to English, "From soup to nuts", but meaning "From start to finish". This definition is based on the fact that Roman dinners often started with eggs and ended with fruit.

From the beginning to the end of any enterprise, thoroughly or without qualification.

Ab uno ad omnes. (Latin)
Translation: "From one to all."
Abiit ad majores. (Latin)
He has gone to his forefathers.

He’s dead.

accede (ahk SEED) (verb), accedes; acceded; acceding
To comply with; consent to, approve; concede, yield to, acquiesce; to agree with, surrender to, conform to: The mayor acceded to the citizens' demands and a bridge was built across the river.
ad (s) (noun), ads (pl)
An abbreviation for "advertisement"; promotional information made public: Susan decided to check the ads in the newspaper for an apartment to rent.
ad- (s) (noun), ads- (pl)
This prefix, ad-, appears before vowels and before the consonants d, h, j, m, and v: et al.

Before sc, sp, and st; ad- is simplified to a-: ascend, aspect, et al.

Before c-, ad- is assimilated to ac-: accelerate, accept, accept, accident, accord, accumulate, accurate, accurate, et al.

Before f, ad- becomes af-: affable, affect, affidavit, affiliate, affinity, affirm, affix, afflatus, afflict, affluence, et al.

Before g, ad- becomes ag-: agglomeration, agglutinate, aggrandize, aggravate, aggravate, aggregate, aggression, aggressive, aggressive, aggressor, et al.

Before l, ad- becomes al-: allege, allegiance, alleviate, alliteration, allocate, allude, allure, allusion, alluvium, et al.

Before n, ad- becomes an-: annex, annihilate, annotate, announce, annul, annulment, et al.

Before p, ad- becomes ap-: apparatus, appeal, appearance, append, appendage, appendix, appetite, applaud, applause, applicable, application, applied, apply, appoint, apportion, apposition, appraise, appreciate, apprehend, apprentice, approach, appropriate, approve, approximate, et al.

Before q, ad- becomes ac-: acquaint, acquaintance, acquiesce, acquiescence, acquire, acquisition, acquital, et al.

Before r, ad- becomes ar-: arrears, arrest, arrive, arrogant, et al.

Before s, ad- becomes as-: ascent, ascertain, ascribe, aspect, , assail, assailant, assault, assemble, assent, assert, assertion, , asset, assiduous, assign, assignment, assist, assistant, associate, assonance, assortment, assuage, assume, assumption, assurance, assure, assuredly et al.

ad absurdum (adverb), more ad absurdum, most ad absurdum
A reference to how an argument demonstrates the ridiculousness of an opponent's proposition: Timothy tried to explain his line of reasoning to the others in the meeting, but it led to ad absurdum, because, as much as he tried to demonstrate his intention, they were all of a different opinion and didn't understand the obvious truth and sound judgment of the issue.
ad annum (Latin)
Up to the year.

Used to indicate a specific year date.

ad- appears in this form before a vowel and before the consonants d, h, j, m, and v. It is simplified to a- before sc, sp and st.

Before c, f, g, l, n, p, q, r, s, and t; ad- is changed to ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, aq-, ar-, as-, and at-.

In other words, the d of ad usually changes into the same letter as the first letter of the following root or word when it is a consonant: ad-fix becomes affix, and ad-sign becomes assign; therefore, making a double consonant.

Another example includes: attract as with ad-tract (drawn towards); so it has a double t. On the other hand when ad- precedes a vowel, as with adapt, it is simply ad-apt, with one d. For the same reason, there is only one d in adore and adumbrate, because ad- has combined with orare and umbra each of which starts with a vowel.

So, remember: since these Latin words begin with vowels and not consonants, the d of ad does not double as shown in the previous examples.

ad astra (Latin)
To the stars.

Ad astra is used as a motto by many organisations and as a proper title for different unrelated things, such as bands, games, and publications, like "Ad Astra", a short story by William Faulkner.

Ad astra per aspera. (Latin)
Translation: "To the stars through difficulties" or "To the stars in spite of difficulties."

The motto of the state of Kansas, USA and Campbell University, Buies Creek, North Carolina, USA.

This motto suggests that we achieve great things only by encountering and overcoming adversities; it will be rough going, but we will make it.

Ad augusta per angust. (Latin)
Translation: "To honors through difficulties."

Augusta refers to holy places and angusta to narrow spaces, therefore sometimes we cannot achieve great results without suffering by squeezing through narrow spaces.

ad calendas graecas (Latin)
At the Greek calends; that is, never; or when hell freezes over.

This statement refers to the calends, the first day of the month which was a feature of the Roman calendar, but the Greeks had no calends!

The calends was the day that interest on borrowed money was to be paid, so, for Roman debtors, they were tristes calendae, "the unhappy calends".

Ad captandam benevolentiam (Latin)
Translation: "To win good will."

For the purpose of winning good will.