grapho-, graph-, -graph, -graphy, -grapher, -graphia

(Greek: to scratch; to write, to record, to draw, to describe; that which is written or described)

As indicated at the bottom of this page, there is a significantly large number of graphic word-entry groups in this unit. Such an extensive listing is provided to show how important the grapho- element is to the English language.

bolograph
A record, or recording, made by a bolometer (an instrument for measuring radiant energy by determining the changes of resistance in an electrical conductor).
botanography
Written descriptions of plants.
brachygraphic
Referring to an abbreviated, symbolic writing method which improves the speed of writing or brevity as compared to a normal method of writing a language.
brachygraphically
Describing any brief, rapid system of writing that may be used in transcribing, or recording, the spoken word.

Such systems, many having characters based on the letters of the alphabet, were used in ancient times; the shorthand of Tiro, Cicero's amanuensis, was used for centuries. Modern systems date from 1588, when Timothy Bright published his 500-odd symbols for words; a French system was developed by Jacques Cossard in 1651, a German one in 1679. In 1602, Rev. John Willis published the Arte of Stenographie; there followed dozens of systems before 1837, when the shorthand of Isaac Pitman appeared.

The Pitman system, with improvements, is in wide use in English-speaking countries today; it is perhaps the most rapid shorthand system and is favored by many court and convention reporters.

brachygraphy
The art or practice of writing with abbreviations or with abbreviated characters; shorthand, stenography.
bromograph
bromography
A treatise or dissertation about food.
bronchography
Radiography of the lungs after instillation of an opaque medium in the bronchi.
bronchospirography
Use of a single lumen endobronchial tube for measurement of ventilatory function of one lung.
brontograph
A recording brontometer; also, a chart of thunder phenomena recorded by that instrument.
brontographic
brontography
An instrument for recording the phenomena associated with thunderstorms.
cacographer (s) (noun), cacographers (pl)
Someone who has poor penmanship, incompetent grammatical usage, and inadequate spelling skills: The college professor arranged for three cacographers in his class to go to a special handwriting tutor to teach them calligraphy because they were writing so poorly that no one could read what they scribbled on their quizzes and tests.
cacographic (adjective), more cacographic, most cacographic
A reference to a bad speller or a bad writer; that is, grammatically and stylistically poor penmanship: Thomas overcame his more cacographic habits by working with a tutor and practicing his handwriting skills every day.
cacographical
1. Relating to bad handwriting.
2. Characterized by the presentation of poor spelling skills when writing.

Related "writing" word units: glypto-; gram-; scrib-, script-.