grapho-, graph-, -graph, -graphy, -grapher, -graphia

(Greek: to scratch; to write, to record, to draw, to describe; that which is written or described)

As indicated at the bottom of this page, there is a significantly large number of graphic word-entry groups in this unit. Such an extensive listing is provided to show how important the grapho- element is to the English language.

bibliographical (adjective), more bibliographical, most bibliographical
Of, relating to, or dealing with the systematic description and history of books, their authorships, publications, editions, physical descriptions, etc.

The worst thing about new books is that they keep us from reading the old ones.

—Joseph Joubert
bibliography (s) (noun), bibliographies (pl)
1. The systematic description and history of books, their authorship, printing, publication, editions, physical description, etc.
2. A list of the books of a particular author, printer, or country, or of those dealing with any particular theme; the literature of a subject.
3. A list of source materials used or consulted in the preparation of a written work or referred to in the text.
To read without reflecting is like eating without digesting.
—Edmund Burke
bioautography (s) (noun), bioautographies (pl)
1. A bioassay of certain compounds, usually antibiotics or vitamins, by evaluating their ability to enhance the growth of some organism and to repress that of others: Using the bioautography stains for enzymes which could not be visualized by any other procedure have been developed
2. Classification of organic material by using solid absorbents that have affinities for specific elements.
3. An analytical technique in which organic compounds are separated by chromatography and identified by studying their effects on microorganisms.
biobibliographer (s) (noun), biobibliographers (pl)
A writer of biographical sketches of the authors listed in a bibliography.
biobibliographical (adjective), more biobibliographical, most biobibliographical
Dealing with the life and writings of an author.
biobibliography (s) (noun), biobibliographies (pl)
1. A bibliography containing biographical information about the author or authors.
2. A bibliography containing biographical sketches of listed authors.
biochromatography (s) (noun), biochromatographies (pl)
A chromatographic separation processes that is applied to natural products; such as, polysaccharides (cell membrane components, antigenic markers, etc.), polynucleotides (support for genetic information for macromolecular engineering) and purification of macromolecules; for example, proteins and functional peptides.
biodemography (s) (noun), biodemographies (pl)
The science dealing with the integration of ecology and the genetics of human populations: Biodemographies consist of information about birth and death processes as they relate to populations in general and to humans in particular.
biog, bio
A short term or abbreviation for "biography".
biogeograph (s) (noun), biographs (pl)
A diagram , a collection, or a chart showing the geographical distribution of living things: Judy had to analyse the biogeograph of animals and vegetation in her region in order to give a talk to the class the following week.
biogeographer (s) (noun), biogeographers (pl)
1. A specialist in biogeography, or someone who studies the distributions of living things: Tom's father was a biogeographer who was an expert in plant and animal life in the earth's environment and knew a lot about the biological and historical factors that produced such distributions.
2 .A scientist who studies the spacial distributions of individual organisms in biotic communities: The biotic communities that a biogeographer is concerned with are composed of plants and animals and of ecosystems, or environmental systems, which are associations of biotic communities interacting with their environments.

An ecosystem may be defined and studied at sites in areas ranging from a small pond to a global biome, such as prairies or tropical rain forests.

biogeographic (adjective), more biogeographic, most biogeographic
A reference to the science of the geographical distribution of living things: Mr. Jackson was very interested in the biogeographic spreading of wild animals in his country.
biogeographic regions (pl) (noun), no singular
References to areas of the world that contain recognizably distinct and special fauna, or animals, and plants.
biogeographical (adjective) (not comparable)
Referring to the study of the geographic or earthly distribution of living organisms: Mrs. Thompson found a book in the library dealing with the biogeographical aspects of plants and animals.
biogeographically (adverb) (not comparable)
A description of how situations involve the geographic or the worldly distribution of living organisms: In class, Judy learned about a biogeographically isolated area of plants and animals.

Related "writing" word units: glypto-; gram-; scrib-, script-.